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Exact dates for the events of the period are difficult to secure. Sources often conflict and there are few references to external evidence. For further information, refer to the Bibliography.

Jesus CommunitiesDateEmpire


63 BCE

Pompey conquers Judea, the region is brought into the Roman Empire.
 37-4 BCEHerod, the Great king of Judea.
 27 BCE - 14 CEAugustus Emperor of Rome.
 4 BCEDeath of Herod: series of revolts begins as Herod's kingdom is divided between his successors.
Saul of Tarsus, the apostle Paul bornca. 5-15 CE 
 6 CEMovement to resist Roman tribute led by teachers and Pharisees rises in Jerusalem.
 14-37 CETiberius Emperor of Rome.
 18-20City of Tiberias founded in Galilee.
 19Jews expelled from Rome.
 26-36 CEPilate prefect of Judea.
Crucifixion of 30 
Stephen stoned in Jerusalem, Saul possibly 33 
Saul's epiphany. According to Acts, it is on road to Damascus. Paul describes his epiphany in his Letter to the Galatians. ca. 34 
Paul returns to Jerusalem to meet with leaders of Jesus movement. Stays 15 days.37Agrippa I installed as king of northern districts of ancient Palestine. Josephus born.
 37-41Gaius Caligula Emperor of Rome. Agrippa receives territories in ancient Palestine. Josephus born.
Paul summoned to Antioch by Barnabas.40 
 40-41Caligula decrees installation of a statue of himself in the Temple in Jerusalem. Massive protests.
 41Agrippa I installed as king of Judea (in addition to earlier districts).
 41-54Claudius Emperor of Rome.
Paul and Barnabas undertake 1st missionary journey: Cyprus, coastal and central Turkey (Galatia).43-48 
Before Agrippa dies, period of persecution, including executions and arrest of Peter.44Agrippa dies; province ruled by Roman procurators.
Internal debates on circumcision and dietary restrictions.48/49 
Paul breaks with Barnabas. Separate missions to Jews and Gentiles. Paul 2nd missionary journey. 49Claudius expels Jews from Rome.
Paul in Corinth with Priscilla and Aquila, refugees from Rome. 50-52? 
Paul returns to Antioch, leaves Priscilla and Aquila in Ephesus 52 
 52/54-60Sicarii active in Jerusalem.
Paul in Ephesus. According to Acts, this is his 3rd missionary journey.52-55/56Nero Emperor of Rome.
Paul sent to Rome.60 
 64Fire of Rome. Christians persecuted.
 66Revolt in Judea begins.
 67Josephus captured by Roman general Vespasian at fall of Jotapata.
 68Nero's suicide. Civil wars ensue.
 69Year of Four Emperors; ends when Vespasian seizes control of Empire.
 70Destruction of Temple ends Judean revolt.