Miners & Minors


The Film

A Bolivian woman wearing traditional clothing, a panama hat and shawl stands with dark clouds and low hills behind her

A 12-year-old Bolivian boy in a red and blue long-sleeved T-shirt, smiles, closed mouth, looking down and away

A perky young Bolivian girl, approximately 8 years old, wearing a bright orange hat with a yellow flower, smiles at the camera

Despite child-labor laws prohibiting work by anyone under 14, approximately one in every four Bolivian children between the ages of 7 and 14 is employed in some way, usually to provide income for impoverished families.
—U.S. Department of State Reports on Human Rights Practices

THE DEVIL’S MINER is the story of 14-year-old Basilio Vargas and his 12-year-old brother Bernardino, who work in the ancient Cerro Rico silver mines of Bolivia. It is believed that over eight million workers have perished in the mines since the 16th century.

Basilio and his brother Bernardino, sit inside the Cerro Rico mine, wearing hard hats and colorful clothing covered in dust
Bernardino (left) and Basilio working

The brothers and their younger sister pose playfully for the camera, smiling, one of the boy’s hands is making “rabbit ears” behind the girls head
Vanessa with her brothers after a day in the mines

Raised without a father and living in extreme poverty with their mother and six-year-old sister on the slopes of the mine, the boys assume many adult responsibilities. It takes two months’ work just to afford the clothing and supplies vital to their education. Without an education, the brothers have no chance to escape their destiny in the silver mines.

The Vargas boys chew coca leaves to stave off hunger and keep their wits about them during their long hours in the mines, where they also present offerings to El Tío, the malevolent spirit that is believed to reside there. Each mine has its own statue of the horned demon who guards the mine’s riches. According to local legend the mines are the exclusive province of El Tío, the protector and destroyer of the miners. El Tío is a miner’s only hope of salvation in this heavily Catholic region, where the people believe that the spirit of God does not exist in the hellish underworld inside the mountain.

Filmmakers Kief Davidson and Richard Ladkani spent months with the Vargas family, journeying down into the Cerro Rico mines with Basilio, Bernardino and the adult villagers who risk their lives to make a meager living. The result is both harrowing and moving, a portrait of a world where children risk their lives daily in hopes of an eventual better life—if the quest doesn’t kill them first.

Get an update on the Vargas family >>

Read the filmmaker Q&A >>

Learn about the city of PotosÌ and the legend of El Tio >>

Top photos (L-R):
Manuela Vargas works as the guardian at the entrance of the La Cumbre Mine
Bernardino has spent his last two years in the mines as an apprentice miner
Vanessa, the youngest child in the Vargas family


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