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Siler City, NC

Siler City, North Carolina

According to the 2000 Census, North Carolina led the population growth of Hispanics in all of the United States with a 394% increase from the 1990 Census.1 In Siler City, NC, Hispanics now compose 39% of the population as opposed to only 4% in 1990.2 The cause of this increase has been attributed mainly to increased employment of immigrant workers (both legal and illegal) by many of the city's major industries, including chicken processing plants and textile mills.3 Illegal immigrants are of growing concern in the Siler City community, and many outspoken people, including David Duke, have made their protests known against companies that hire such individuals. Tyson Foods Inc. is one of the companies at the center of this controversy. After a two-and-a-half year investigation, the Department of Justice began a case against Tyson Foods, Inc. in December 2001 for smuggling illegal aliens into the United States to work in its factories.4 In March 2003, a jury acquitted Tyson Foods of all charges.5 For more information on Siler City, please go to the essay by Angel David Nieves, PhD, University of Maryland at College Park on this website.

1 http://www.census.gov
2 Genaro C. Armas, "Many Hispanics entering small towns," AP, April 2, 2001. Richard T. Cooper, "Racial, Ethnic Diversity Puts New Face On Middle America," Los Angeles Times, March 31, 2001 as quoted in Rural Migration News, vol. 7: no. 2, April 2001.
http://migration.ucdavis.edu/rmn/archive_rmn/apr_2001-01rmn.html
3 Ibid.
Health Services Library at University of North Carolina website,
http://www.hsl.unc.edu/phpapers/silercity00/SCcommprofile.htm
4 US Department of Justice, "INS Investigation of Tyson Foods, Inc. Leads to 36 Count Indictment for Conspiracy to Smuggle Illegal Aliens for Corporate Profit,"
http://www.usdoj.gov/opa/pr/2001/December/01_crm_654.html
5 Tyson Foods Inc., Tyson News Releases,
http://www.tysonfoodsinc.com/corporate/news/viewNews.asp?article=1187

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The King/Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA

The King/Drew Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA

King/Drew Medical Center comprises the Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital, a community-based health care facility, and the Charles R. Drew University of Medicine and Science.1 The Center was created after the 1965 Watts riots to service a then-predominantly African-American community without adequate medical facilities.2 The Charles University of Medicine and Science started as a private, postgraduate medical school in 1966. Its namesake, Charles R. Drew, was an African-American physician who discovered how to preserve blood, and he was the director of the first American Red Cross Blood Bank during the Second World War. When the Martin Luther King, Jr. Hospital opened its doors in 1972 it was the seventh public hospital in Los Angeles County. It serves Compton, Watts, Willowbrook and South Central Los Angeles. 3 After complaints about King/Drew's hiring and promotional policy, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) investigated and found that King/Drew did not recruit, hire or promote Hispanics, a group that comprises 60% of the hospital's patients. 4 There have been 35 race-based discrimination cases filed against King/Drew since 1991, and three have been filed within the past year. 5 Recent statistics, however, also suggest that the hospital is showing signs of change. In 1990, 71.6% of the employees were Black, 11.8% were Hispanic, 8.4% were Asian, 5.2% were White, 3.1% were Filipino and 0% were Native American. 6 Today, there are currently some 2,700 employees at the King/Drew Medical Center: 60.8% are Black, 18.5% are Hispanic, 9.6% are Asian, 5.4% are Filipino, 5.6% are White and 0.1% are American Indian. 7

1Quick Facts, http://ladhs.org/mlk/quickfac.htm 8/25/03
2Ibid.
3Brief History of King/Drew Medical Center,
http://www.ladhs.org/mlk/history.htm 8/25/03
4Goldsmith, Susan. "Blacks Only" New Times Los Angeles
5Office of Affirmative Action Compliance, Martin Luther King, Jr./Charles R. Drew Medical Center, Discrimination Complaints Based On Race: 1991-2003
6Ibid.
7Office of Affirmative Action Compliance, Martin Luther King, Jr./Charles R. Drew Medical Center Workforce Composition By Race/Sex: 1988-2003.

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Pine Ridge Reservation, South Dakota

Pine Ridge Reservation Center, North Dakota & Black Hills

In 1889, the U.S. government seized approximately 7.7 million acres of land from the Sioux people. 1 The Pine Ridge Reservation in the Black Hills region of South Dakota is all that remains today of that land. This geographic area covers roughly two million acres of land and is home to about 40,000 Sioux Native Americans, or Lakota. 2 Today, it has been declared the poorest sector in the United States. 3 Sixty-nine percent of its residents live under the poverty line. 4 Unemployment is at 84 percent. The median income is about $2,600 a year. 5 Furthermore, alcoholism is a problem in eight out of ten families. Teen suicide is one and one half times higher than the national average, and the average life expectancy is only 45. 6 The United States Supreme Court has since ruled in favor of giving the Sioux Nations tens of millions of dollars for the illegal seizing of their land. The United States refuses to return the land and instead wants to buy it from the tribes. The Lakota have refused the money on the matter of principle.7These issues, as well as the history of US State relations with the Sioux people, have yet to be resolved. For more information, please see article by Desiree Renee Martinez, Gabrielino (Tongva), Ph.D. Candidate, Department of Anthropology, Harvard University on this website.

1Reservation Profiles: Pine Ridge Reservation http://www.airc.org/reservations/pineridge.html
2http://www.pineridgerez.net/overview.php
3Pine Ridge Profiles: Pine Ridge Reservation http://www.airc.org/reservations/pineridge.html
4Ibid.
5Ibid.
6http://www.pineridgerez.net/overview.php
7Pine Ridge Profiles: Pine Ridge Reservation http://www.airc.org/reservations/pineridge.html

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White Mountain Apache Reservation, Arizona

White Mountain Apache Reservation, Arizona

The White Mountain Apache Reservation is located one hundred and ninety-four miles northeast of Phoenix, Arizona. The reservation was created on November 9, 1891. It was originally called the Fort Apache Indian Reservation. Consisting of 1.6 million acres of land, it is home to 2,500 out of approximately 12,000 descendents of the native people of that region. 2 The economy of the reservation consists of a ski resort, trout fishing and elk hunting, fishing and camping resorts, and casinos. 3 The median household income is $16,894, and individuals under the poverty line were recorded to be 59.5 %.3 There is a 16.4% unemployment rate and the majority of the employed workers are in the service industry. 4

1http://www.itcaonline.com/tribes_whitemtn.html
2http://www.cba.nau.edu/business/caied/pages/21_tribes/white-mountian.htm
3http://factfinder.census.gov/
4Ibid.

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TWaikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii

Waikiki, Honolulu, Hawaii

Waikiki is a square mile economic powerhouse located in Honolulu, on the Oahu island. 1 It provides 12% of Hawaii's jobs and 13% of the state's gross product. 2 In 2002, Waikiki-based visitors pumped more than five billion dollars into the state economy; that is 46% of the statewide total. 3 Approximately 20,000 people call Waikiki home and 22% are native Hawaiian. During a beach restoration and road widening project in Waikiki hundreds of native Hawaiian bones were discovered buried underneath main roads and on the beach. The Historical Preservation Division handles up to 250 burial cases each year, nearly all related to native Hawaiian skeletal remains. 4 The skeletal remains of nearly 3,000 native Hawaiians have been reinterred since 1991. 5 Native Hawaiians believe that iwi, or bones, hold the spiritual essence and power of a person (known as mana). 6 When the iwi is buried, the mana returns to the earth to nourish the next generation. 7 Family members would bury the deceased at night to prevent enemies from locating the iwi, and thus, stealing the mana. Consequently, many burial sites were known only to family members, who have a difficulty in divulging the burial location to others, even if those burial sites are threatened by development. 8 The issue of balancing Hawai'i' s economic development and the centrality of tourism to the economy with the cultural beliefs and values of the island's indigenous population remains a volatile and important one.

1Waikiki BID, http://www.waikikibid.org/waikikiprofile.htm
2ibid.
3"The Economic Contribution of Waikiki,"
http://www.state.hi.us/dbedt/econ_waikiki/contribution.html
4Burial Sites Program,
http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/hpd/hpburials.htm
5Burial Sites Program,
http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/hpd/hpburials.htm
6Na Iwi Kupuna: Bones of Our Ancestors, p2 http://www.state.hi.us/dlnr/hpd/naiwikupuna.htm
7ibid.
8ibid, p7

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TThe Tenderloin, San Francisco, CA

The Tenderloin, San Francisco, CA

The Tenderloin district is a triangular area in the city of San Francisco, which is marked by Market Street, Post Street, and Van Ness Avenue. Other reports mark the boundaries of the district as Van Ness Avenue, Gough, Mason Street, and Golden Gate Avenue. 1 Whichever way the district is defined, all agree that the Tenderloin is surrounded by the districts of Union Square, Nob Hill and the Civic Center and that in direct contrast to these wealthier neighborhoods, the ethnically diverse Tenderloin, which consists of approximately 25,000 residents, has been plagued for decades by poverty, crime, drugs, and poor housing infrastructure. 2 In the late 1970s, refugees from Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia moved into the area to escape the war and conflict in Southeast Asia. The Tenderloin rates some of the highest averages of concentrated poverty in the San Francisco area and is home to approximately 200 social service agencies which offer services for housing, youth, drug rehabilitation, education, and job training. 3 In tourism magazines, the Tenderloin is noted as a place for tourists to avoid, and a neighborhood in need of renewal. 4

1Bill Clearlake, "The Tenderloin: 'The Tenderloin is a place most tourists pass by,'" September 2000. http://www.beauty-reality.com/sfvisit3.html
2Michael Stabile, "Tenderloin Turnaround," Metro-Active.com, March 1, 1999. http://www.metroactive.com/papers/sfmetro/03.01.99/tenderloin2-9907.html
3Peninsula Library Service, "Update on the Needs of the Medically Underserved," 2003. http://www.plsinfo.org/healthysmc/20/poor.html
John wallace, "Shifting Face of S.F.'s Neighborhoods," San Francisco Examiner, September 19, 1999. http://www.wallacesteichen.com/Shifting.doc.
4See for example: Let's Go: San Francisco, 2003. http://www.letsgo.com/SF/02-OnceInSF-6

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