Q & A with Ken Burns
Director Ken Burns and Cinematographer Buddy Squires
Filmmaker Ken Burns and his production company Florentine Films have created a host of award-winning documentary films, including The Civil War, Baseball, Lewis and Clark: The Journey of the Corps of Discovery, Jazz, a series of biographies of prominent American historical figures, and the recent series The War, that have been the most acclaimed and most-watched programs in public television history.
Why a documentary on the national parks system?
I think we've always been curious about who we are as a people and what it means to be an American. I think the land and our identity with it, the mythology that surrounds it, the kind of hopes and dreams that we invest in it, get to the heart of that identity. Too often we assume in history that the approach should take a national perspective, and I think what's amazing about the parks story is that it's so intimate. Part of this story is about who we are individually as we experience the parks – they help us get to know ourselves and we can also relate to previous generations through these magnificent places.
How long have you been working in the film?
It's difficult to figure out the precise moment when a project's been born. I've been working with Dayton Duncan for 20 years on films about the physicality of this country – The West, Lewis and Clark, Mark Twain, Horatio's Drive, to name a few. This seems to be the apotheosis, the sort of the thing that we've been going for in all of our films, and so we've been talking about the national parks for more than a decade. A decade ago, we committed to doing the project. We've been writing proposals and trying to figure out how to organize it for eight or nine years, and we've been filming for more than five. I remember those first moments in Santa Fe, and then later at Chaco Canyon and in Yosemite in 2003, and it's been an incredible journey ever since that's taken us literally all around this beautiful country and has delivered experiences for us as filmmakers, as colleagues and as friends that I don't think we've ever had on any other production before.
Was it a challenge to get access to all the areas in the parks where you filmed?
Well, one of the things we do is to live the life of a milkman at both ends of the day. We're up well before dawn and go to sleep well after sunset even in the summer when those hours are pretty long. We've had enormous cooperation from the National Park Service. At the particular sites, people were very excited that we were going to try to tell a different kind of story about the parks – and really about America. With Park Service cooperation we filmed in every season from every time of day at every vantage point that we could think of, trying to get back something of it that ultimately still never does true justice to the reality of the landscape. Until you stand on the rim of the Grand Canyon, no photograph, however spectacular, really does justice to that moment.
What kind of conditions were you filming in?
Well, we've frozen in below-zero weather. We've filmed in broiling hot temperatures. I remember trying, unsuccessfully, to go to sleep one night, exhausted in the Grand Canyon – but the rocks that we were sleeping on were like radiators, radiating the heat that had been in the 110s during the day, which seemed to be at the temperature at night too. It can be very extreme. Yet I don't think anyone ever complained about these conditions. We all felt that we were part of a privileged moment as we tried to capture this experience on film. But it's been every extreme. We've been from Alaska to the Virgin Islands, from Maine to the Hawaii volcanoes. We've learned so much about the natural world, about animals, about plant life, about birds – you just felt better each day that you worked on it.
Several times in the film, you relate how a single individual or a small group manages to have a real impact in helping to create a park. Can you talk about that?
This is the reason why biography is so important to history. It has become the fashion that biography is dismissed as hagiography or hero worship and we turn to other forces for explanations – economic, political, social forces that affect events, and they certainly do. But it is so interesting to see, particularly in our history, that individuals do matter, that people can come across something and be a catalyst for change. William Gladstone Steel in the 1870s happened to accidentally see a picture of Crater Lake in Oregon in a newspaper that had wrapped his lunchtime meal. He resolved to go there, and, once he did get there 15 years later, he devoted another 17 years to trying to get it made into a national park – which he helped achieve. This is 32 years later after having that epiphany over lunch. What is it about that? What do we learn from that? It's not something that you answer. It's a question that you pose. It's like delving into who we are – the "Who am I?" is not anything that you ever answer, but you deepen your understanding with each successive asking of the question. So the other question, this one about biography, the "How is it that these people did this?" question isn't one you really answer. You just revel in the fact that they did – and you relate their story.
What do you want audiences to remember watching this film?
When you make a film, you create a kind of vessel that permits people to find their own interpretation, their own meaning. Somebody's going to say, "Oh, that's my favorite park," or "that's what I'm gonna do." As we neared the end of editing and we're shared the film with people around us, some would say "I'm not going to Europe now. I want to take my kids here."
That's the kind of thing you want to hear. But you don't want to in any way tell people what to think or what to do. You just want, figuratively, to say, "Here it is, hope you like it." Maybe you're impelled to go to Glacier or maybe you've just got to make that trek up to Denali or to Kenai to see the bears at the mouth of that river catching the salmon. Maybe it's the Hawaiian volcanoes that got you or the eco-diversity in the Everglades that America has recently plucked from absolutely devastating development and said "yes, we're going to save this." That's what you want to do – you just want to say "Here!", and as with a menu, let people put together their own sumptuous feast.
Why does America need national parks?
I think we need them because they're good for our sanity and our health, to have some places in which we've arrested the march of "progress." Now, most of what we do in the name of progress is pretty darned good, but we preserve species, we preserve these magnificent places and we need to have them. They're like anchors. When we say "My country 'tis of thee" – it's my country – are we talking about city streets? Are we talking about industrial cities? No. We're talking about the land we have and there's so very little of it that's unspoiled or that doesn't have a fence through it. Here in these special places that we've resolved together as a people to preserve, we feel a sense of commonality. You come to a national park and all of a sudden some of the barriers between people, between classes, even between nationalities are broken down and you share and have the experience of an essential, collective humanity. That's a pretty good thing in a world whose major direction is sort of quisitive and extractive – "What can I get out of things? What do I want? What's in it for me?" At a park we experience something that's collective. It's a common wealth, and my goodness, especially today we need that reminder of what we share in common. What I say to people is, "You own the grandest canyon on earth. Together, you own some of the most spectacular scenery." That's pretty good news.
Check out the transcript from the online chat with Ken Burns on Tuesday, July 28th.