Aug. 20, 2013 | COPING WITH CLIMATE CHANGE

NOTES ABOUT ARCTIC ICE AND DISTANCE CALCULATIONS

Arctic sea ice extent refers to the area of the ocean with at least 15 percent sea ice. Comparative data taken for Aug. 15. 2013 and the average of each Aug. 15 from 1980 to 2010. See the National Snow and Ice Data Center's Arctic Sea Ice News and Analysis for more information.

Shipping distances are estimates and can vary depending on sea conditions and the exact route used. All comparative distances in miles used Shanghai to Rotterdam.

SOURCES

National Snow and Ice Data Center
“The Northern Sea Route versus The Suez Canal: cases from bulk shipping” — Journal of Transport Geography
Royal Belgian Institute of Marine Engineers
Dept. of Global Studies and Geography, Hofstra University
MIT Technology Review
Reuters
Financial Times
Wikimedia Commons
“Final Frontier: The Northern Sea Route” — husdal.com
epa.gov
Northern Sea Route Information Office
The Northern Sea Route Administration.

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