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Explore the Challenges

The Challenge: Make Ice

WARNING: The methods used by the Rough Scientists in their attempts to make ice involved the use of methanol, ethanol, acetone and ether. These are highly flammable liquids and their vapors form explosive mixtures with air. They should only be used by experienced chemists who are taking the appropriate safety precautions. The following notes are provided as background to the Rough Science TV series, not as a set of instructions for carrying out the experiments.

There's nothing more refreshing on a tropical island than an ice-cold drink. But would we be able to overcome the heat and high humidity to succeed in the ice challenge?

What is ice?

Water, like most matter, comes in three distinct forms: solid (ice), liquid (water) and gas (vapor). In all three forms, water is made up of molecules consisting of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom (H2O).

Water Molecule
Water Molecule

The difference between ice, water and vapor is to do with the bonds between these molecules.