8.2 Chief Joseph and Alice Fletcher at the Nez Percé Lapwai Reservation in Idaho, where Fletcher arrived in 1889 to implement the Dawes Act. The man on one knee is James Stuart, Alice Fletcher's interpreter. According to Jane Gay in "With the Nez Perces" (University of Nebraska Press, 1981), Stuart customarily kneeled in this way when he felt anxious. Photograph by Jane Gay.
(Courtesy Smithsonian Institution, National Anthropological Archives [MS4558]. Images from the National Anthropological Archives may not be reproduced without permission.)