Male and Female Literary Societies
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This document describes the two male and three female libraries and literary societies that were founded by black Philadelphians in the decade following the establishment of public schools for black children.
Philadelphia's first literary society was organized in 1819 by representatives from all of the city's black religious denominations. The Augustine Society was founded with goal of establishing a seminary in response to the "formidable barriers rendering it almost impossible to obtain for our offspring such instruction as we deem essentially necessary to qualify them for the useful walks of society."
Beneficial and Charitable Societies
Appendix to Memorial to Pennsylvania Legislature
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