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Confrontational Howl



Vertical scale: frequency (0-2500 hertz); horizontal scale: time (1 frame aprox. equal to 2 seconds); color: signal strength (from lowest to highest, violet, blue, green, yellow, orange, red).

In the above example, an alpha male howls after approaching a stranger who had howled close to the rendezvous site. The long, low-pitched and coarse howls seem designed to scare off the intruder without the need for a face-to-face confrontation.

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What's in a Howl | Ed Bangs | Wolf-Dog Connection
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