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FILIPINOS IN THE AMERICAS

1898 - Treaty of Paris concludes the Spanish-American War. Spain sells the Philippines to the United States for $20 million. The Philippines becomes a protectorate of the United States.

1903 - After the Filipino defeat, in the U.S. /PHILIPPINES WAR the Pensionado Act allowing Filipino students (pensionados) to come to the United States for higher education.

1907 - First group of Filipino laborers arrives in Hawaii.

From 1907 to 1924, approximately 46,000 Filipino men and 7, 000 women immigrate to Hawaii.

1920 - Japanese and Filipino plantation workers demand an end to race discrimination in pay scales and paid maternity leave for female workers.

1924 - Approximately 1, 600 Filipino workers go on an eight-month strike, one of the bloodiest strikes up to that time in Hawaii.

1922 - The Cable Act provides that woman citizens will lose their U.S. citizenship if they marry aliens ineligible for citizenship; unlike white women, Asian American women cannot regain their U.S. citizenship through naturalization; repealed in 1931.

1924 - Immigration Quota Act excludes all aliens ineligible for citizenship (all Asians except Hawaiians and Filipinos) and allows entry of alien wives of Chinese merchants, but not alien wives of U.S. citizens until 1930.

1929 - Race riots break out around Watsonville, California, against Filipino agricultural laborers.

1931. Filipinos who served in the U.S. armed forces now eligible for U.S. citizenship.

1933 - Salvador Roldan vs. LA County, tests the anti-miscegenation laws and the Appellate Court rules that Roldan could marry Marjorie Rogers, an Anglo woman because Filipinos are "Malays, not Mongolians " as prohibited by anti-miscegenation laws. The anti-Filipino forces however soon get legislation added onto existing laws to include Filipino-white in anti-miscegenation prohibitions.

1934 - Morrison vs. California holds Filipinos ineligible for citizenship.

1934 - Tidings - McDuffie Act promises independence to the Philippines in ten years and assigns an annual quota of 50 Filipino immigrants (compared to Chinese 105).

1934 - Filipino lettuce pickers in the Salinas Valley, California, go on strike.

1935 - Congress passes Repatriation Bill to encourage Filipinos to return to their homeland. Only 2,000 Filipinos leave.

1936 - American Federation of Labor grants charter to a Filipino- Mexican union of fieldworkers.

1938 - 150 Chinese women garment workers strike for thirteen weeks against the National Dollar Stores chain and form the first Chinese chapter of the International Ladies' Garment Workers Union (IlGWU).

1940 - AFL charters the Filipino Federated Agricultural Laborers Association.