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2001 Early conceptual design for "2001: A Space Odyssey"

Many studios eliminate their effects departments, and a new generation of independents moves in to fill the gap.

Sketchpad Ivan Sutherland demonstrates Sketchpad.

Ivan Sutherland invents Sketchpad, the first interactive computer graphics program, for design and engineering applications.

"Cleopatra," the effects Oscar winner for 1963, premieres. Its $44 million budget, $300 million in today's dollars, makes it the most expensive film ever made. In addition to extensive effects, the film also includes a set of the Roman Forum larger than the real thing and a full-scale barge with a gilded stern.

After three years in production, "2001: A Space Odyssey" premieres. The meticulously researched art direction and effects, including an early form of motion control and the slit-scan technique used for the dazzling Stargate Corridor sequence, set a new standard for special effects.

Continue: 1970s

Photos/illustrations: (1) Graphic Films; (2) Reprinted with permission of MIT Lincoln Laboratory, Lexington, Mass.

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