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Glossary of Medical Terms - Previewing Sheet #2

Note to Students: Read the following definitions and compare them to your answers. Underline the terms that you feel you correctly defined.

Body Mass Index
A measure of body fat that is calculated based on your height and weight.

A measure of energy that is created by foods and used by the body. It is recommended that girls between the ages of 14-18 should consume about 2200 calories a day, while boys between 14-18 should consume about 3000 calories a day. You can find more about the amount of calories recommended for young people by going to the following site:

A fat-like substance that is found in certain foods and is also produced in the body. Cholesterol travels through the bloodstream in different packages called lipoproteins. Low-density lipoproteins (LDL or "bad" cholesterol) deliver cholesterol to the body, while high-density lipoproteins (HDL or "good" cholesterol) take cholesterol out of the bloodstream. There is a correlation between high blood-cholesterol levels and heart disease.

A simple sugar that is the main source of energy for the body.

A starch that is stored in the muscles and liver that maintains blood sugar levels between meals. It is the form in which carbohydrates are stored in animals and humans.

Glycemic Index
Shows how different types of carbohydrate-containing foods can raise the blood glucose levels within two hours. Carbohydrates that raise the blood sugar the fastest, such as potatoes, have the highest glycemic index.

The body manufactures this natural hormone to control the level of sugar glucose in the blood.

A condition of being more than 20 percent over one's recommended weight.

This organ creates juices and hormones, including insulin, that help digest food.

Saturated Fats
Fats contained in dairy products, meat, poultry and vegetables. These fats, such as butter, are solid at room temperature. Saturated fats have been found to raise cholesterol levels.

Unsaturated Fats
Fats that are liquid at room temperature. They are contained in fish and plant products. Unsaturated fats have been found to lower cholesterol levels.

Trans Fats
Fats that are artificially created through a chemical process of the hydrogenation of oils. This solidifies the oil and limits the body's ability to regulate cholesterol. These fats are considered to be the most harmful to one's health. The Federal Drug Administration has mandated that the amount of trans fats be labeled on food products by 2005.

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