05.08.2019

Currency Futurist Neha Narula Debunks Cryptocurrency

The way we use money is rapidly evolving. Over the past decade we’ve seen the rise and fall and rise again of cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin. So how do we figure out the digital money of the future? Hari Sreenivasan got some answers from someone who knows best: currency futurist Neha Narula.

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THE WAY WE USE MONEY IS RAPIDLY EVOLVING.

OVER THE PAST DECADE, WE'VE SEEN THE RISE AND FALL AND RISE AGAIN OF CRYPTOCURRENCIES LIKE BITCOIN.

HOW DO WE FIGURE OUT THIS DIGITAL MONEY OF THE FUTURE.

OUR HARI SEEN VASSEN GOT ANSWERS AT THE MIT MEDIA LAB.

JUST SO WE HAVE A BASELINE LANDING, PEOPLE HAVE DIFFERENT IDEAS CRYPT CURRENCIES ARE, WHAT IS IT?

THE IDEA IS THAT TEN YEARS AGO WE FIGURED OUT HOW TO USE CRYPTOGRAPHY WHICH IS A FIELD OF MATHEMATICS.

IT'S ABOUT KEEPING INFORMATION HIDDEN OR PROVING THE INTEGRITY OF INFORMATION.

WE FIGURED OUT HOW TO APPLY THAT TO MONEY.

YOU CAN USE -- WITH A CLEVER APPLIATION OF CRYPTOGRAPHY, YOU CAN SECURE THE TRANSFER OF MONEY AND PAYMENTS WITHOUT NEEDING A TRUSTED THIRD PARTY.

THAT'S THE BASIC IDEA BEHIND CRYPTOCURRENCY.

WHAT CAN YOU DO WITH CRYPT CURRENCY THAT YOU CAN'T DO WITH THE MONEY WE HAVE TODAY?

YOU'VE DESCRIBED THE MONEY WE'RE FAMILIAR WITH AS A COLLECTIVE STORY.

EXPLAIN THAT.

YEAH, SO MONEY ISN'T NECESSARILY SOMETHING OBJECTIVE.

THE IDEA BEHIND MONEY IS WE'VE ALL LANDED ON THE SAME FORM OF IT.

WE'VE DECIDED THAT CERTAIN PIECES OF PAPER ARE WORTH MORE.

WE'VE DECIDED THAT BARS THAT ARE COLORED A CERTAIN WAY AND HAVE A CERTAIN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ARE WORTH SOMETHING.

AND THESE CHOICES ARE ARBITRARY, BUT IN OTHER WAYS NOT AT ALL.

THEY REPRESENT AN ENTIRE NETWORK OF HUMAN BEINGS WHO HAVE COME TOGETHER AND AGREED UPON A STORY LIKE YOU SAID.

SO, YOU KNOW, WHEN YOU START TO THINK ABOUT MONEY THAT WAY AND YOU START TO THINK ABOUT VALUE THAT WAY YOU START TO REALIZE THAT HEY I CAN START TO IMAGINE MONEY THAT ISN'T NECESSARILY BASED ON A GOVERNMENT OR, YOU KNOW, A MINERAL OR A PIECE OF PAPER.

BUT INSTEAD A MONEY THAT IS JUST DIGITAL AND JUST REALLY EXISTS BECAUSE PEOPLE THINK IT'S VALUABLE.

OKAY.

IN THIS NEW CRYPT OWORLD THERE' THIS IDEA OF BLOCK CHAIN.

EXPLAIN THAT.

IT'S INTERESTING THAT THE WORD BLOCK CHAIN HAS TAKEN OFF.

IT'S HARD TO DECIPHER WHAT'S BEHIND IT EXACTLY.

SO, THE BLOCK CHAIN IS THE DATA STRUCTURE BEHIND CRYPTOCURRENCIES.

SO, IT'S BASICALLY A LEDGER.

IT'S A LIST.

THE IDEA BEHIND IT IS THAT THERE ARE A LOT OF COMPUTERS, SOMETIMES THOUSANDS, ALL AROUND THE WORLD RUNNING THE SAME SOFTWARE.

AND THAT SOFTWARE IS SENDING TRANSACTIONS AROUND AND IS MAINTAINING THIS LEDGER WHICH WE CALL THE BLOCK CHAIN.

SO, IF YOU GAVE ME $4 OF SOME SORT OF CRYPTOCURRENCY, THE NETWORK IS MAKING SURE I HAVE FOUR MORE DOLLARS AND THOSE DOLLARS DIDN'T GO ANYWHERE ELSE.

EXACTLY.

LOOK AT ACCOUNT BALANCES, RIGHT?

IF I PAY YOU, YOU DEBIT YOUR ACCOUNT AND CREDIT MY ACCOUNT.

THAT'S THE IDEA.

THESE TRANSACTIONS ARE JUST TRANSFERS OF VALUE.

AND THE BLOCK CHAIN IS JUST A GINT LIST OF ALL OF THESE TRANSACTIONS.

AS LONG AS EVERYBODY AGREES WHAT THE TRANSACTIONS ARE, WE AGREE ON WHO HAS WHAT MONEY.

GIVE ME EXAMPLES OF HOW CRYPT COCURRENCIES COULD IMPACT DIFFERENT INDUSTRIES OF OUR LIFE?

I THINK IT GOES BACK TO THE IDEA OF THE ENDLESS NETWORK.

WE HAVEN'T HAD THAT FOR DIGITAL MONEY BEFORE.

BEFORE CRYPT CURRENCIES CAME AROUND, THE ONLY WAY TO MAKE A DIGITAL PAYMENT WAS TO INVOLVE A BANK IN SOME WAY.

NOW WITH THE ADVENT OF CRYPTOCURRENCIES WE'RE SEEING WAYS OF MAKING DIGITAL PAYMENTS WHERE YOU DON'T NEED TO GO THROUGH THE BANKING SYSTEM.

THE REAL INTERESTING IDEA BEHIND CRYPTOCURRENCY IS THE IDEA THAT YOU CAN START PLAYING AROUND WITH VALUE, MOVING VALUE, TAKING PAYMENTS, CREATING NEW FORM OF A FINANCIAL ASSET WITHOUT ASKING FOR PERMISSION.

A LOT OF PEOPLE LIKE TO MAKE AN ANALOGY TO THE INTERNET.

THE INTERNET GAVE US A WAY OF DISCRETIZING DATA SO WE COULD TAKE DATA AND SEND IT AROUND THE WORLD IN AN INSTANT.

WE HAD THE SET OF PROTOCOLS THAT ANYBODY COULD USE.

YOU DON'T HAVE TO ASK SOMEONE'S PERMISSION TO VISIT A WEBSITE OR DO A GOOGLE SEARCH.

YOU CAN JUST DO IT.

THAT'S THE IDEA WE WANT TO APPLY TO VALUE.

AND IF YOU DID THAT FOR VALUE, WHAT ARE THE KINDS OF EFFICIENCIES THAT YOU GAIN?

SO, RIGHT NOW, IF I WANTED TO GIVE YOU -- LET'S SAY IT'S NOT CASH AND I WANTED TO GIVE YOU A CREDIT CARD PAYMENT OF $25, I HAVE TO GIVE YOU A CREDIT CARD NUMBER OR SWIPE IT THROUGH MY PHONE AND SOMEWHERE ALONG THE LINE SOMEONE'S MAKING A COUPLE OF BUCKS OFF THAT TRANSACTION.

SO, IF I DID THIS, HOW IS THAT DIFFERENT?

ACTUALLY CRYPTOCURRENCIES ARE LESS EFFICIENT.

THEY'RE PRETTY SLOW AND CLUNKY RIGHT NOW.

BUT IT'S THE IDEA OF THEM THAT'S REALLY EXCITING.

RIGHT NOW EVERYBODY TAKES CREDIT CARD.

MY CREDIT CARD WORKS PRETTY MUCH EVERYWHERE.

IT'S NOT A PROBLEM.

WE LIVE IN THE UNITED STATES.

WE'RE IN NEW YORK RIGHT NOW.

THAT'S NOT THE CASE EVERYWHERE IN THE WORLD.

THERE ARE BILLION UNBANKED PEOPLE IN THE WORLD WHO DON'T HAVE ACCESS TO DIGITAL FINANCIAL SERVICES.

AND PART OF THE REASON FOR THAT IS NOT BECAUSE IT'S TECHNICALLY IMPOSSIBLE TO BANK THEM OR TO GIVE THEM ACCESS TO PAYMENTS AND FINANCIAL SERVICES.

IT'S JUST HASN'T BEEN IN THE ECONOMIC INTEREST OF THE EXISTING FINANCIAL INTERMEDIARY TO DO SO.

SO, THEY HAVEN'T HAD ACCESS.

THEY HAVEN'T BEEN ABLE TO -- THEY HAVEN'T BEEN SERVED IN TERMS OF PAYMENTS.

SO, IF THEY'RE SERVED -- THAT'S -- YOU'RE ON BOARDING SO TO SPEAK OF A COUPLE BILLION NEW PEOPLE THAT COULD BE CUSTOMERS THAT COULD BE ENGAGED IN THE SYSTEM.

WHAT ARE THINGS THAT -- SO, IS TLA POSSIBILITY THEN THAT THERE ARE PARTS OF THE WORLD THAT COMPLETELY LEAPFROG OUR BANKING SYSTEM AS WE KNOW IT AND GO DIRECTLY ON TO BLOCK CHAIN BASED OR CRYPTOCURRENCY MODEL BECAUSE ALL THEY CARE ABOUT IS MAKING SURE THAT VENDOR THEY'RE DEALING WITH GETS THAT VALUE AND THAT PERSON SAYS YEP, YOU'RE GOOD FOR IT, RIGHT?

YEAH, I THINK THAT'S THE DREAM.

WHAT WE'RE SEEING IS WE'RE SEEING A MINIPARALLEL FINANCIAL SYSTEM SPRING UP WHERE EVERYTHING IS DONE VIA BLOCK CHAIN TECHNOLOGY.

THINGS ARE TOKENIZED, DIGITI SIZED.

YOU'RE TRADING ASSETS.

SO FAR IT HASN'T REALLY TAKEN OFF AND IT'S VERY, VERY SMALL COMPARED TO THEEST ARE OF THE FINANCIAL INDUSTRY.

BUT IT'S A REALLY INTERESTING EXPERIMENT.

AND A LOT OF PEOPLE BECAUSE, AGAIN, OF THAT OPEN PERMISSIONLESS NATURE, A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE BUILDING NEW THINGS ON TOP OF IT.

AND THEY'RE GOING TO FIGURE SOMETHING OUT.

GIVE ME AN EXAMPLE OF SOMETHING THEY'RE GOING TO FIGURE OUT.

THE IN 2018 WE SAW A LOT OF PEOPLE USING BLOCK CHAIN TECHNOLOGY TO RAISE MONEY.

UNFORTUNATELY A LOT OF THESE THINGS WERE SCAMMY AND IT WAS SORT OF THE WILD WILD WEST.

A LOT OF PEOPLE WERE CIRCUMVENTING FINANCIAL REGULATION.

BUT PEOPLE WERE ABLE TO EXPERIMENT WITH REALLY INTERESTING FUNDING MODELS.

PEOPLE COULD LIST A TOKEN ON AN EXCHANGE AND START COLLECTING MONEY.

KIND OF LIKE A STOCK.

YEAH, ALMOST IMMEDIATELY.

THEY DIDN'T HAVE TO REGISTER.

THEY DIDN'T HAVE TO HIRE A LAWYER.

A LOT OF THEM DID HIRE LAWYERS BECAUSE THAT WAS THE SMART THING TO DO.

THEY WERE ABLE TO THINK ABOUT PROPERTIES THAT CAME WITH THAT.

IT'S NOT THAT YOU'RE A TRADITIONAL STOCK INVESTOR.

PEOPLE ARE EXPERIMENTING WITH THINGS.

MAYBE I'LL PAY A FEW CENTS TO UP VOTE THIS POST I REALLY LIKE.

THESE INITIAL COIN OFFERINGS, LIKE A PUBLIC OFFERING OF A STOCK SAYING HERE'S I AM, YOU CAN BUY A KOINT SAYING YOU HAVE FAITH IN WHAT I'M ABOUT TO DO.

YEAH, INITIAL COIN OFFERINGS, IT'S A PLAY ON THE WORD INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING, ICOs AND IPOs.

THE IDEA BEHIND THEM IS INSTEAD OF HIRING A GIANT INVESTMENT BANK TO ISSUE SHARES AND TO SELL SHARES AND YOURSELF TO THE PUBLIC, YOU'LL JUST DO IT YOURSELF.

YOU'LL JUST DO IT THROUGH A WEBSITE, THROUGH BLOCK CHAIN TECHNOLOGY.

AND A LOT OF PEOPLE DID THAT.

AND THE WAY THAT IT WORKS IS YOU SORT OF SET UP AN OFFERING OF THESE TOKENS.

THESE TOKENS KIND OF ARE LIKE STOCK SHARES.

YOU ISSUE THEM AND OFFER THEM TO THE PUBLIC AND PEOPLE CAN BUY THEM IF THEY BELIEVE IN YOUR PROJECT.

SO, WITH THIS CAME AN ENORMOUS SPECULATIVE BUBBLE.

THERE ARE A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO HAD NO UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT THE TECHNOLOGY WAS.

THEY WATCHED THE NEWS AND SAW BITCOIN IS WORTH MORE TODAY.

I'VE GOT TO GET IN ON THIS.

WHO DO I KNOW?

A FRIEND OF A FRIEND.

AND ALL OF A SUDDEN, YOU KNOW -- DOES THAT DO MORE DAMAGE OR NOW THAT THAT BUBBLE HAS SORT OF STARTED TO COLLAPSE A BIT, IS THAT SHAKING OFF THOSE SPECK LAY TORS WHO DON'T UNDERSTAND IT AND THE PEOPLE IN IT HERE EITHER FOR THE LONG HALL OR UNDERSTAND A LITTLE BIT MORE OF WHAT THEY'RE INVESTING IN.

WE SAW THE PRICE OF CRYPTOCURRENCIES GO REMARKABLY HIGH.

AND A LOT OF PEOPLE WERE INTRIGUED ABOUT WHAT'S GOING ON, HOW IS THIS HAPPENING, CAN I MAKE MONEY WITH THIS?

THAT'S FINANCIAL SPECULATION.

IT'S NOT THE PART OF WHAT'S HAPPENING THAT EXCITES ME THE MOST.

WHAT EXCITES ME IS REALLY THE UNDERLYING TECHNOLOGY.

SO, I THINK WHEN THE PRICE CRASHES, IT SORT OF WEEDS OUT A LOT OF PEOPLE WHO ARE JUST IN IT FOR THE FINANCIAL SPECULATION.

YEAH.

THERE ARE COUNTRIES LIKE INDIA WHO HAVE LOOKED AT THIS AND SAID THERE ARE PEOPLE GETTING FLEECED.

THEY'RE THINKING ABOUT WRITING LAWS SAYING WE DON'T WANT ANYTHING TO DO WITH THIS STUFF.

IS THAT POSSIBLE TO REGULATE?

THAT'S A GREAT QUESTION.

I AM NOT SURE THAT IT IS POSSIBLE TO REGULATE.

I THINK THAT THE ENTIRE WAY THIS TECHNOLOGY IS DESIGNED IS IT'S TRYING TO BE DESIGNED IN A WAY THAT CAN CIRCUMVENT THESE TYPES OF REGULATIONS.

IT'S A BIT LIKE THE INTERNET RUZ DESIGNED.

EXACTLY.

SORT OF WITHSTAND WAR AND EVERYTHING ELSE.

EXACTLY.

THE DESIGN IS TO BE AS RESILIENT AS POSSIBLE.

I THINK WE HAVE TO FIND A WAY TO COEXIST WITH THESE NETWORKS THE WAY WE COEXIST WITH THE INTERNET.

ONE OF THE CONCERNS HAS BEEN THAT AS THE RESILIENCY INCREASES OVER TIME, IT MAKES IT HARDER TO WEED OUT THE BAD ACTORS IN THE SPACE LIKE THE SILK ROAD THAT HAD TRANSACTING HORRIBLE STUFF, NOT JUST DRUGS BUT WEAPONS AND POSSIBLY HUMAN TRAFFICKING.

PEOPLE WERE SAYING HOW DO WE SHUT THIS DOWN?

THERE'S NO PAPER TRAIL?

IT'S NOT LIKE SOMEBODY USED A CREDIT CARD WHERE I CAN SAY OKAY THIS IS WHERE THE TRANSACTION HAPPENED.

THIS IS THE BANK IT HAPPENED THROUGH.

THIS IS THE PERSON WHO DID IT, AND THIS IS THE PERSON WHO RECEIVED IT.

I CAN GO GET BOTH SIDES AND STOP THIS.

GOVERNMENTS NEED TO BE ABLE TO POLICE AND ENFORCE, ABSOLUTELY.

THE QUESTION IS WHERE DOES IT HAPPEN?

I THINK THAT A LOT OF THE TIMES WE RELY ON THE FINANCIAL SYSTEM TO DO ENFORCEMENT.

I'M JUST NOT SURE THAT'S GOING TO WORK IN THE FUTURE.

SO, MUCH THE WAY AS SOON AS YOU POST SOMETHING ON THE INTERNET IT'S OUT THERE AND YOU CAN'T TAKE IT BACK, I THINK WE HAVE TO SEE THERE ARE GOING TO BE WAYS OF TRANSFERRING VALUE THAT CAN'T NECESSARILY BE STOPPED.

NOW, THAT DOESN'T MEAN THAT WE CAN'T HAVE LAW ENFORCEMENT AND THAT CRIMINALS ARE GOING TO RUN RAMPANT.

IT JUST MEANS WE HAVE TO THINK ABOUT HOW TO ENFORCE THESE GOALS IN A DIFFERENT LAYER IN THE M IS.

WHAT'S A GOOD MIX OF REGULATIONS?

IS THERE A COUNTRY OUT THERE THAT'S DOING IT RIGHT YET?

A LOT OF COUNTRIES ARE DOING REALLY DIFFERENT THINGS.

YOU HAVE SOME COUNTRIES THINKING OF BANNING CRYPTOCURRENCIES OR HAVE BANNED THEM.

YOU HAVE SOME COUNTRIES THAT ARE TAKING A WAIT AND SEE APPROACH.

I THINK WHAT SINGAPORE IS DOING IS INTERESTING.

SINGAPORE'S REGULATOR IS VERY ENGAGED.

THEY'RE DOING EXPERIMENTS.

THEY ARE THINKING ABOUT HOW TO EVALUATE DIFFERENT COMPANIES AND BUSINESSES OR THINKING ABOUT SAND BOXES.

AND SO, YOU KNOW, THEY'RE BEING REALLY OPEN TO THE TECHNOLOGY.

SO, WHAT ARE THINGS YOU CAN DO WITH CRYPTOCURRENCIE IN THE WORLD OF CONTRACTS AND EVERYTHING ELSE?

HOW IS THIS MONEY CAPABLE OF BEING SMARTER THAN WHAT I HAVE IN MY POCKETS?

SO, I THINK ONE EXAMPLE THAT REALLY HELPS IS TO THINK ABOUT MICROPAYMENTS.

IT WOULD BE VERY COOL IF I COULD PAY FOR THINGS IN A MORE GRANULAR LEVEL.

IF I COULD PAY FOR EXACTLY WHAT I CONSUME.

IF I COULD TIP PEOPLE TINY AMOUNTS OF MONEY.

PEOPLE ARE ALSO THINKING ABOUT THINGS LIKE MORE METHODS OF FUNDING, OTKIND OF LIKE CROWD FUNDING, LETTING PEOPLE COME TOGETHER AND POOL THEIR ASSETS AND INVEST TOGETHER.

I THINK THAT BASICALLY EVERY FINANCIAL INSTRUMENT YOU SEE ON WALL STREET TODAY, EVEN THE MOST COMPLEX, WILL EVENTUALLY BE REWRITTEN AS SOFTWARE AS A PROGRAM THAT RUNS ON A BLOCK CHAIN AND CAN DO WHATEVER IT IS THE INVESTMENT BANK WAS DOING BUT WITH CRYPTO ASSETS.

I'VE HEARD THIS PUBLIC LEDGER CAN BE USED FOR LOTS OF THINGS, EVEN TRACKING A PIECE OF FOOD FROM THE FIRM FARM ALL THE WAY INTO YOUR BURRITO.

YEAH.

WHAT'S REALLY INTERESTING IS THAT CRYPTOCURRENCIES HAVE KIND OF INSPIRED PEOPLE TO TAKE A LOOK AT CRYPTOGRAPHY AND SOME OF THE TECHNOLOGIES BEHIND BLOCK CHAINS AND USE THEM IN ALL SORTS OF WAYS.

SO, ONE THING THAT'S BECOME REALLY INTERESTING IS SORT OF MAKING OUR DATA AND MAKING OUR SYSTEMS MORE TRANSPARENT AND MORE VERIFY ABLE.

RIGHT NOW, OUR DATA IS PRETTY OPAQUE.

IT LIVES INSIDE OF COMPANIES.

EXAM WE DON'T NECESSARILY HAVE ACCESS TO IT ALL THE TIME AND WE CAN'T NECESSARILY DECIDE HOW IT'S USED OR EVEN TRACK HOW IT'S USED.

THE REALLY COOL THING ABOUT BLOCK CHAINS IS THAT BLOCK CHAINS KIND OF TURN ALL OF THAT UPSIDE DOWN.

THE DATA BECOMES SOMETHING THAT IS VERY SPECIFICALLY TRACKED AND CAN BE CRYPT GRAPHICALLY VERIFIED.

SO, WE'RE SEEING PEOPLE APPLY THIS TO THE SUPPLY CHAIN WORLD.

IT SEEMS LIKE A NATURAL FIT.

A LOT OF PEOPLE ARE CONCERNED ABOUT WHERE THE FOOD THEY'RE EATING IS COMING FROM.

SO, PEOPLE ARE INTERESTED IN FINDING OUT HOW DO I GET FINER GRAIN TRACKING?

HOW CAN I GO UP TO SOMEONE AND CONVINCE THEM CRYPT GRAPHICALLY THIS TUNA THEY'RE ABOUT TO BUY HAS BEEN SUSTAIN BLI HARVESTED, FOR EXAMPLE.

SO, PEOPLE USING THESE TECHNOLOGIES AT DIFFERENT POINTS IN SUPPLY CHAINS.

SO, YOU'RE DESCRIBING SOMETHING ALMOST LIKE WHEN YOU LOOK UP YOUR FEDEX OR UPS NUMBER THERE'S A DOT THAT SAYS IT'S GOTTEN TO THIS POINT.

SO, YOU COULD DO THAT WITH TUNA OR LETTUCE.

IF THERE'S SOMETHING BAD THAT HAPPENS AT THE END, YOU CAN TRACE IT BACK TO THE SOURCE.

EXACTLY.

IT'S COOL TO KNOW EXACTLY WHERE YOUR FOOD COMES FROM.

IT'S A REALLY NEAT THING TO BE ABLE TO PROVIDE.

OR EVEN ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS.

IF THERE WAS A WAY TO KNOW WHO TOUCHED WHAT PART OF MY HEALTH DATA.

THIS DOCTOR CAN HAVE ACCESS TO EVERYTHING BUT DON'T NEED ACCESS TO OTHER STUFF.

EXACTLY.

PEOPLE ARE INTERESTING IN APPLYING THIS TO MEDICAL AND HEALTH CARE RECORDS.

YOU TALK TO DOCTORS AND PATIENTS AND THEY'RE JUST FRUSTRATED.

THEY HAVE TO TAKE THESE PRINTED FILES WITH THEM FROM DOCTOR TO DOCTOR AND IT'S REALLY ANNOYING AND FRUSTRATING.

AND I THINK APPLYING THESE IDEAS TO THE MEDICAL HEALTH CARE PROFESSION COULD BE REALLY NICE.

COULD BE REALLY HELPFUL.

WHERE ARE WE IN TERMS OF THE EVOLUTION OF ALL OF THIS?

PUT IT IN TERMS OF A CAR VERSUS A HORSE AND BUGGY, MAYBE.

YEAH.

SO, I THINK WE'RE JUST ABOUT THE POINT WHERE YOU CAN DRIVE THE CAR DOWN THE STREET BEFORE IT EXPLODES.

SO, WE ARE STILL VERY MUCH AT THE BEGINNING OF STAGES OF THIS TECHNOLOGY.

IT'S MOVING REALLY FAST.

FASTER THAN I EVER THOUGHT IT WOULD, WHICH IS REALLY EXCITING TO SEE.

BUT IT'S STILL THE CASE THAT THE CARS ARE SLOWER THAN THE HORSES IS WHERE WE ARE.

EVEN THOUGH IT'S BEEN TEN YEARS, THIS STUFF TAKES A LONG TIME TO FIGURE OUT.

THANKS SO MUCH FOR JOINING US.

About This Episode EXPAND

Christiane Amanpour speaks with Mitt Romney & Chris Murphy about what’s going on in Washington; and Bill Weld about his bid for the presidency. Hari Sreenivasan speaks with Neha Narula about the future of digital currency.

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