02.22.2019

Harry Edwards on Social Rights Activism in Sports

Michel Martin sits down with a sociologist and civil rights activist Harry Edwards who has been behind protests by high-profile athletes for more than fifty years.

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FIRST, WE TURN FROM ACTIVISM IN SCHOOLS TO ACTIVISM IN SPORT WHERE AMERICA'S RACIAL STRUGGLES PLAY OUT AT EVERY LEVEL FROM THE YOUNGEST BEGINNERS TO THE HIGHEST PAID PROFESSIONAL ATHLETES.

DR. HARRY EDWARDS IS A SOCIAL O SOCIALOLOGIST AND A CIVIL RIGHTS ACTIVIST WHO HAS BEEN BEHIND PROTESTS OF HIGH PROFILE ATHLETES FOR MORE THAN 50 YEARS, AND OUR MICHELLE MARTIN ASKED DR. EDWARDS HOW HE SEES MANY LINKS BETWEEN SPORTS AND SOCIAL JUSTICE.

PROFESSOR HARRY EDWARDS, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR SPEAKING WITH US.

THANK YOU FOR HAVING ME.

WHEN DID YOU UNDERSTAND THAT SPORTS WAS ABOUT MORE THAN THE CONTEST ITSELF, MORE THAN THE GAME ITSELF, THAT THERE WAS A BIGGER PICTURE TO IT.

DO YOU REMEMBER WHEN THAT INSIGHT CAME TO YOU?

YEAH, WELL, MY AWARENESS VOVLED AT THE INTER -- EVOLVED AT THE INTERFACE OF MY STUDY OF SOCIOLOGY AND SCHOLAR ATHLETE.

IT BECAME CLEAR THAT IT WASN'T HOW WELL YOU PLAYED THE GAME OR YOUR COMPETENCE OR CAPABILITY OR POTENTIAL IN TERMS OF THE SPORT, IT HAD TO DO WITH A LOT OF ISSUES, OFTENTIMES REFLECTING ISSUES THAT WERE IN A BROADER SOCIETY.

I THOUGHT THAT THERE WAS SOMETHING STRANGE AS AN UNDERGRADUATE, SCHOLARSHIP ATHLETE, ABOUT THE FACT THAT THE GREATEST SPRINTERS AND TRACK PLAYERS THAT WE HAD AT THE SCHOOL WERE BLACK, THE LEADING REBOUNDERS AND SCORERS IN BASKETBALL WERE BLACK.

THE BEST RUNNING BACKS AND DEFENSIVE BACKS WERE BLACK, BUT THERE WERE NO BLACK COACHES.

THERE WERE NO BLACK PROFESSORS ON CAMPUS TO SPEAK OF.

I THINK THAT THERE WAS ONE THAT I NEVER GOT TO KNOW, NEVER GOT TO MEET WHILE I WAS AN UNDERGRADUATE THERE, BUT I THOUGHT THAT THERE WAS SOMETHING WRONG WITH THAT, AND AS I BEGAN TO DELVE INTO IT FROM A SOCIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE, IT BECAME VERY VERY CLEAR THAT IT REFLECTED THE CIRCUMSTANCES OF SOCIETY.

YOU HAVE BEEN A PART OF OUR DISCUSSIONS ABOUT SPORTS AND SOCIETY, PARTICULARLY RACE AND SOCIETY FOR HALF A CENTURY NOW.

I MEAN, PEOPLE WILL REMEMBER SAY WITH TOMMY SMITH AND JOHN CARLOS, THE OLYMPIC SPRUINTERS WHO MADE A PROTEST AT THE 68 OLYMPICS, ONE OF THE MOST ICONIC IMAGES OF PROTEST SPORTS, GOING STRAIGHT TO COLIN KAEPERNICK, THE FORMER 49ers QUARTERBACK WHO HAS GOTTEN ATTENTION FOR HIS PROTESTS AGAINST POLICE VIOLENCE, AND OTHER MATTERS.

YOU HAVE BEEN INFLUENTIAL IN ALL OF THAT.

WHAT WOULD YOU DESCRIBE AS YOUR ROLE IN THESE IMPORTANT MOMENTS?

I'M BASICALLY A TEACHER.

AND IN ALL OF THESE INSTANCES, I WAS A COUNSELOR OR A TEACHER IN THE CASE OF CARLOS AND SMITH, A COUNSELOR TO KAEPERNICK AND THEY WOULD ASK ME QUESTIONS AND I WOULD GIVE THEM HONEST ANSWERS AND PERSPECTIVES ON THE ISSUES THAT THEY WERE RAISING.

THERE'S NOTHING NEW ABOUT ATHLETE PROTESTS.

THIS GOES BACK TO THE TURN OF THE 20th CENTURY.

IT GOES BACK TO PLESY VERSUS FERGUSON IN SEPARATE BUT EQUAL.

IN POINT OF FACT, PLESY VERSUS FERGUSON, THE UNITED STATES SUPREME COURT IN 1896 SAYS NOTHING ABOUT SEPARATE BUT EQUAL.

SO WHEN YOU LOOKED AT ATHLETES SUCH AS JACK JOHNSON, WHO TRAILED WHITE HEAVY WEIGHT CHAMPIONS ALL OVER THE WORLD, DEMANDING A FIGHT, WHEN YOU LOOK AT ATHLETES SUCH AS JESSE OWENS, WHEN YOU LOOK AT ATHLETES SUCH AS JOE LEWIS, WHEN YOU LOOK AT ATHLETES SUCH AS PAUL ROBISON, WHEN YOU LOOK AT THE NEGRO LEAGUES, YOU RECOGNIZE ON ANALYSIS, THE NEGRO LEAGUES WAS A RESISTANCE MOVEMENT.

THE GOAL WAS TO PUSH BLACK PEOPLE BACK TO AS CLOSE TO SLAVERY WITHOUT THAT.

ATHLETES HAD A ROLE TO REBEL AGAINST THIS THAT IN THE RESISTANCE AGAINST THAT, AND THE PERFORMANCES AT THE TURN OF THE CENTURY WERE ABOUT ESTABLISHING LEGITIMACY WERE PART OF THE RESISTANCE MOVEMENT.

KAEPERNICK WAS SAYING THERE'S SOMETHING WRONG ABOUT 147 BLACK MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN BEING SHOT DOWN, LARGELY UNARMED, BEING SHOT DOWN BY POLICE EVERY YEAR.

BUT INSTEAD, IT WAS CONVERTED INTO, WELL, THIS A PROTEST AGAINST THE FLAG.

THIS IS A PROTEST AGAINST THE POLICE.

LET'S GO BACK INTO YOUR HISTORY LESSON, IF YOU WOULD, FOR A MOMENT, YOU'RE SAYING THAT BLACK ATHLETES HAVE ALWAYS BEEN PART OF RESISTANCE MOVEMENTS, I THINK WHAT I HEAR YOU SAYING IS THAT BLACK ATHLETIC, HAS SOMETIMES BEEN RESISTANCE IN AND OF ITSELF, FOR EXAMPLE, THE NEGRO LEAGUES WAS A RESISTANCE MOVEMENT.

WOULDN'T IT BE FAIR TO SAY THAT JO JOHNNY --

IT REPRESENTED SOMETHING NEW, BUT EVERY PHASE OF THE ATHLETES RESISTANCE MOVEMENT, PROTEST MOVEMENT HAS BEEN SOMETHING NEW.

SO THE FIRST ERA WAS ABOUT LEGITIMACY IN A SITUATION OF ABJECT SEGREGATION, THE SECOND WAVE OF ATHLETIC WAS JACKIE ROB YUNSON, THE THIRD WAVE WAS ABOUT DIGNITY AND RESPECT.

JIM BROWN SAID I PLAYED FOOTBALL FOR RESPECT.

MOHAMMED ALIME WANTED RESPECT F HIS NAME, FOR HIS RELIGION, AND BILL RUSSELL REFUSED TO BE CALLED A BASKETBALL PLAYER.

HE SAID UNEQUIVOCALLY, I'M A MAN WITH A WHOLE BUNCH OF TALENTS, ONE OF WHICH IS I HAVE A TREMENDOUS TALENT FOR WINNING BASKETBALL GAMES, BUT THAT DOESN'T MAKE ME A BASKETBALL PLAYER, AND SO AS WE GO THROUGH THESE VARIOUS PHASES, WE FIND THAT NO ERA DOES THINGS THE WAY THAT THE LAST ERA DID.

COLIN KAEPERNICK AND ERIK REED AND MICHAEL BENNET, AND MALCOLM JENKINS AND THOSE ATHLETES ARE NOT DOING THINGS THE WAY THAT TOMMY SMITH AND JOHN CARLOS DID.

MANY PEOPLE SAY THEY BELIEVE THAT KAEPERNICK HAS BEEN BLACKBALLED AS A RESULT OF THIS, DO YOU THINK HE WAS PREPARED FOR ALL OF THAT?

I KNOW THAT UYOU SPOKE WITH HIM AND ADVISED HIM?

WAS HE PREPARED FOR THE MAGNITUDE OF ALL OF THIS?

I THINK HE WAS ACCEPTING FOR WHATEVER CAME.

HE WAS ACCEPTING OF WHATEVER MIGHT COME.

AND WE DISCUSSED SPECIFICALLY THE OUTCOMES OF MOHAMMED ALI WHO LOST HIS CHAMPIONSHIP, THE OUTCOMES OF SMITH AND CARLOS, WHO WERE BANNED FROM AMATEUR ATHLETIC COMPETITION.

WE TALKED ABOUT JOE LEWIS AND JESSE OWENS AS GREAT AS THEY WERE AS ATHLETES, AS PATRIOTIC AS THEY WERE OF ATHLETES, THEY WOUND UP BEING HOUNDED MOST OF THEIR LIVES BY THE INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, SO ANYTIME YOU'RE HIGH PROFILE, AND YOU STAND UP FOR ARE YOU PART OF A RESISTANCE MOVEMENT IN TERMS OF THIS WHOLE HISTORY OF AMERICA'S -- ONE OF AMERICA'S ORIGINAL SINS, WHITE SUPREMACY, THE OTHER BEING PATRIARCHY, THEN YOU'RE GOING TO PAY A PRICE, AND SO I DON'T THINK COLIN HAD ANY ILLUSIONS THAT THAT WOULD BE SOME BACKLASH AND POINT OF FACT, THE BACKLASH CAME ALL ALONG THE WAY.

AND HE WAS ACCEPTING OF THAT REALITY AND WILLING TO PAY THAT PRICE.

YOU'RE A TENURED PROFESSOR EMERITUS AT YOUR INSTITUTION, AND I KNOW YOU HAD A STRUGGLE TO GET TENURE, I THINK IT'S ASSUMED IN PART BECAUSE OF YOUR ACTIVISM, SHALL WE SAY, ALTHOUGH YOU DID ULTIMATELY GET TENURE, IS THERE ANY PART OF YOU THAT WHEN YOU SEE A YOUNG MAN LIKE KAEPERNICK COMING FORWARD, SEEKING YOUR ADVICE,MEN WANTING TELL HIM NO, DON'T DO IT.

NO, I NEVER TELL ATHLETES OR ANYBODY ELSE I COUNSELLED WHAT TO DO.

I TELL THEM THE LIKELY OUTCOMES DEPENDING UPON WHAT TYPE OF OPTION THEY CHOOSE.

I HAVE BEEN IN THAT SITUATION.

I WAS FIRED FROM SAN JOSE STATE FOR ORGANIZING THE OLYMPIC PROJECT FOR HUMAN RIGHTS AND SHUTTING THE SCHOOL DOWN OVER ISSUES OF RACIAL INJUSTICE.

I WAS PERSONA NONGRATA AT CORNELL UNIVERSITY FOR HALF A CENTURY.

THEY JUST INVITED ME BACK THIS COMING APRIL AS A CONSEQUENCE OF TAKEOVER OF WILLIS STATE HALL, WHICH THE CHANCELLOR BLAMED ME FOR AT CORNELL, AND SO FOR 50 YEARS I HAVE NEVER BEEN BACK ON THAT CAMPUS, EVEN THOUGH I LECTURED A VIRTUALLY EVERY OTHER IVY LEAGUE UNIVERSITY FROM HARVARD TO PENN AND YALE AND SO FORTH.

UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA DENIED ME TENURE.

OVER THE PERIOD OF TIME THAT I HAVE BEEN OUT THERE AS AN ACTIVIST, I MEAN, IN THE 1960s, I WAS SHOT AT TWICE.

SO I KNOW THAT THAT GOES ON.

YOU DON'T HAVE TO BE A CELEBRITY TO RUN INTO THOSE KINDS OF ISSUES.

YOU DON'T EVEN HAVE TO BE AN ACTIVIST.

I KNOW THAT YOU ARE AWARE THAT THESE PROTESTS, PARTICULARLY ONES THAT ATTRACT A LOT OF ATTENTION SOMETIMES, YOU KNOW, REPEL AS MANY PEOPLE AS THEY ATTRACT, AND I KNOW THAT I WAS READING THAT YOU ACTUALLY CONDUCTED AN EXERCISE OR THOUGHT EXPERIMENT, IF WE WANT TO CALL IT THAT WITH AN AUDIENCE THAT YOU WERE SPEAKING WITH, AND YOU ASKED THEM, YOU KNOW, HOW MANY OF YOU ARE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH THESE PROTESTS OR SLIGHTLY UNCOMFORTABLE TO VERY UNCOMFORTABLE AND YOU SAID THAT, WHAT WAS IT, SOMETHING LIKE 60% OF THE HANDS WENT UP.

ABOUT 75% OF THE AUDIENCE.

SO HOW DO YOU RESPOND TO THAT?

THOSE WHO SAY IT'S NOT PRODUCTIVE IF MOST OF THE PEOPLE IN THE AUDIENCE ARE UNCOMFORTABLE WITH IT.

WHAT DO YOU SAY TO THAT?

BECAUSE THEY DON'T WANT THE DISCUSSION.

THESE PROTESTS ARE NOT ABOUT MAKING PEOPLE FEEL COMFORTABLE, MAKING PEOPLE FEEL OKAY.

IT'S ABOUT PROMOTING THE DISCUSSION, AND THE REASON YOU HAVE THE SHIFT FROM THE POINTS THAT KAEPERNICK AND THESE OTHER PROTESTING ATHLETES HAVE BEEN TRYING TO MAKE, THAT WE ARE BETTER THAN 147 BLACK MEN, WOMEN AND CHILDREN BEING SHOT DOWN IN THIS SOCIETY EVERY YEAR SINCE 1968 BY REPRESENTATIVES OF THE JUDICIAL SYSTEM, WE'RE BETTER THAN THAT.

THEY DON'T WANT TO DISCUSS THAT.

THEY DON'T WANT TO DISCUSS WHITE SUPREMACY.

THEY DON'T WANT TO DISCUSS INJUSTICE, SO THAT IS SIMPLY THE NATURE OF PROTESTS.

THERE HAS NEVER BEEN A PROTEST BY A MINORITY IN AMERICAN SOCIETY WHERE THE AMERICAN MAINSTREAM HAS STOOD UP AND SAID AMEN.

WE SUPPORT THAT.

THAT'S WHY THEY CALL IT A PROTEST RATHER THAN A PICNIC.

YOU RECENTLY WROTE A PIECE TALKING ABOUT WHY THERE WERE SO FEW PEOPLE CONTINUING TO KNEEL DURING NFL GAMES LAST YEAR, FOR EXAMPLE, THERE WERE A COUPLE OF HUNDRED PEOPLE WHO WERE PARTICIPATING IN THESE PROTESTS.

IT BECAME LIKE A MAJOR SORT OF STORY.

BY THE END OF THIS SEASON, THERE WERE SORT OF VERY FEW.

HOW SHOULD WE INTERPRET THAT?

DOES THAT MEAN THAT THESE PROTESTS WERE NOT SUCCESSFUL OR THE ATHLETES WERE INTIMIDATED FROM CONTINUING THEM?

WELL, FIRST OF ALL, YOU HAVE A SITUATION WHICH IS NOT ORGANICALLY CONNECTED TO THE SPORTS THAT ARE INVOLVED.

THE ISSUES THAT KAEPERNICK AND THESE ATHLETES WERE TAKING A KNEE ABOUT AND SO FORTH, CAME O OVER THE STADIUM WALL FROM THE BROADER SOCIETY.

YOUR UNLIKELY TO GET A LARGE PROPORTION OF ATHLETES SAYING, YEAH, I'M GOING TO DO THAT BECAUSE THEY'RE NOT DIRECTLY AND SPECIFICALLY IMPACTED AND AFFECTED BY THE ISSUES IN QUESTION.

THE SECOND THING IS THAT THESE TYPES OF MOVEMENTS TEND TO HAVE ABOUT A SIX-YEAR LIFE SPAN.

THAT IS TO SAY IF YOU GO BACK AND LOOK FROM THE TIME THAT LeBRON JAMES AND D. WADE AND THE MIAMI HEAT DID THE HOODIE DEMONSTRATION, UP UNTIL LAST YEAR, IT'S ABOUT SIX YEARS, FROM 2012 UP UNTIL 2018.

SO THESE MOVEMENTS HAVE ABOUT A SIX-YEAR LIFE SPAN, THE BLACK POWER MOVEMENT, WHICH WAS INITIATED WITH STOKLEY CARMICHAEL IN 1966.

BY 1972, IT WAS VIRTUALLY DEAD.

THEY HAVE THAT PERIOD OF LIFE, PRINCIPALLY BECAUSE OF INTERNAL CONTRADICTIONS AND CHALLENGES, SO THESE KINDS OF EVOLUTIONS AND THE WINDOW OF TIME WHEN YOU CAN BE ACTIVE AND EFFECTIVE ARE SOCIOLOGICALLY PREDICTABLE.

THAT'S ONE OF THE THINGS THAT WE HAVE LEARNED THROUGH PURSUING THE SOCIOLOGY SCORE.

I KNOW THAT YOU SAY YOU DON'T TELL ATHLETES WHAT TO DO BUT I'M GOING TO INVITE YOU TO AND SAY NOW THAT YOU HAVE SAID THAT THIS IS LIKE THE NATURAL LIFE SPAN OF THIS KIND OF PROTEST, WHAT SHOULD HAPPEN NOW IN YOUR VIEW?

WHAT WOULD YOU LIKE TO SEE HAPPEN NOW?

WELL, I WOULD LIKE TO SEE THIS WHOLE THING MOVE FROM PROTESTS, WHICH HAVE ALREADY DIMINISHED SUBSTANTIALLY, TO POLICIES AND PROGRAMS FOR THE INTERESTS OF GENERATING PROBLEM.

KAEPERNICK IS NOT AGAINST THE POLICE, HE'S NOT AGAINST THE JUSTICE SYSTEM.

HE'S AGAINST INJUSTICE.

THAT MEANS THAT COLLABORATIVELY, WE'RE GOING TO HAVE TO COME TOGETHER AND GET EVERYBODY AROUND THE TABLE, INCLUDING THE POLICE, INCLUDING THE CITIZENS, INCLUDING THE PEOPLE FROM THE VARIOUS SPORTS AND DETERMINE HOW DO WE MOVE THIS THING FROM THIS FOCUS ON PROTESTS TO PROGRESS THROUGH CHANGES IN POLICIES AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF COLLABORATIVE PROGRAMS.

THERE HAVE BEEN A COUPLE OF REPORTS LATELY THAT SUGGEST THAT THE AMERICAN LOVE AFFAIR WITH FOOTBALL IS WANING, IN FACT, A NUMBER OF HIGH PROFILE FIGURES IN THE SPORT, FOR EXAMPLE, LIKE TERRY BRADSHAW HAS SAID HE WOULDN'T LET HIS SONS PLAY.

IN FACT, HE'S NOT THE ONLY ONE, AND I WONDER WHAT YOU MAKE OF THAT?

I MEAN.

WELL, YOU HAVE HALL OF FAME FOOTBALL PLAYERS, NFL FOOTBALL PLAYERS WHO SAY THEY WOULD NOT ALLOW THEIR SONS TO PLAY FOOTBALL.

YOU HAVE THE USA FOOTBALL LEAGUE WHICH IS DOWN 17%. YOU HAVE POP WARNER FOOTBALL, WHICH IS DOWN OVER 20% OVER THE LAST TWO YEARS.

AND SO WHAT YOU HAVE IS THIS DECLINE AT THE LEVEL OF DEVELOPMENT IN TERMS OF PEOPLE ALLOWING THEIR SONS TO PLAY FOOTBALL, BUT THAT IS WHY YOU'RE GOING TO HAVE AN OVERWHELMINGLY BLACK LEAGUE.

AS I TALKED TO ONE MOTHER FROM OAKLAND WHO HAD A SON PLAYING FOOTBALL IN COLLEGE AND IN HIGH SCHOOL SHE SAID, HEY, YOU'RE TELLING ME ABOUT THE CONCUSSION ISSUE.

AND MY SON COULD BE KILLED ON THE WAY TO FOOTBALL PRACTICE RIGHT HERE.

IF HE CAN PLAY FOOTBALL, AND THAT'S A WAY OF HIM TO MOVE UP AND OUT AND GET BETTER CIRCUMSTANCES, NOT JUST FOR HIMSELF, BUT FOR THE FAMILY, THEN HE'S GOING TO PLAY FOOTBALL.

WHEN YOU LOOK AT THAT KIND OF REASONING, WHICH MAKES SENSE, DON'T TELL ME ABOUT A CONCUSSION THAT MIGHT IMPACT MY SON 25 YEARS FROM NOW.

LOCK AT THE CIRCUMSTANCES WE'RE IN.

YOU SEE BLACKS BEING CHANNELLED INTO FOOTBALL DESPITE THE MEDICAL ISSUES.

THE OTHER THING IS THAT BLACKS HISTORICALLY HAVE NOT TRUSTED THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, GOING BACK TO THE EXPERIMENTS ON SYPHILIS AND BEYOND.

THEY HAVE NOT TRUSTED THE MEDICAL PROFESSION, SO EVEN WHEN THEY HAVE THE INFORMATION, OFTENTIMES THEY LOOK AT IT ASKANCE, AND THEN THE THIRD THING IS BECAUSE THEY'RE SO COMMITTED TO THE SPORT, THEY TEND TO DOMINATE IN THOSE POSITIONS THAT THEY HAVE ACCESS TO, AND SO THERE'S NOBODY ELSE OUT THERE COMPETING AT THAT LEVEL.

SO FOR ALL OF THOSE REASONS, BLACKS ARE GOING TO PREVAIL IN FOOTBALL AND THAT'S WHO YOU'RE GOING TO BE WATCHING IN THE NFL.

SO IT'S NOT JUST AN ISSUE OF WHITES PULLING THEIR SONS OUT OF FOOTBALL AT THE DEVELOPMENTAL LEVEL.

IT'S THAT OLD ISSUE OF WHETHER WHITES WILL WATCH WHAT IS SUBSTANTIALLY AN OVERWHELMINGLY BLACK LEAGUE.

I DO FIND MYSELF WONDERING AFTER HALF A CENTURY IN THE FIGHT WHAT'S YOUR STATE OF MUIN?

I MEAN, DO YOU FEEL THAT PROGRESS IS BEING MADE?

DO YOU FEEL OPTIMISTIC?

I'M OVERWHELMINGLY OPTIMISTIC.

BECAUSE?

WE HAVE TO UNDERSTAND THAT MOVEMENTS ARE A PART OF AMERICA'S POLITICAL DNA.

OLD SAM ADAMS AND HIS SONS OF LIBERTY MOVEMENT WAS NOT A BRITISH GOVERNMENT PROGRAM WHEN THEY THREW THAT 300 PLUS BOXES OF TEA INTO THE BOSTON HARBOR.

ALL THROUGHOUT AMERICAN HISTORY, THERE HAVE BEEN MOVEMENTS.

THIS PROTEST MOVEMENT THAT WAS SET IN MOTION BY THE MIAMI HEAT AND FOLLOWED UP ON BY COLIN KAEPERNICK, THOSE ARE TRADITIONAL AND AS AMERICAN AS CHERRY PIE.

WE CAME OUT OF THE ABOLITIONIST MOVEMENT BETTER.

WE CAME OUT OF THE LABOR MOVEMENT WITH AN EIGHT-HOUR DAY.

WE CAME OUT OF THE WOMEN'S MOVEMENT WITH WOMEN'S RIGHT TO VOTE.

WE CAME OUT OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT WITH THE VOTING RIGHTS ACT AND THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT.

WE'RE GOING TO COME OUT OF THE BLACK LIVES MATTER MOVEMENT BETTER.

WE'RE GOING TO COME OUT OF THIS MOVEMENT AMONG PROTESTING ATHLETES BETTER BECAUSE THAT IS WHAT WE AMERICANS DO.

HARRY PROFESSOR AEMERITUS, THANK YOU SO MUCH FOR TALKING WITH US SG.

THANK YOU MY PRIVILEGE.

About This Episode EXPAND

Christiane Amanpour speaks with Pedro Noguera & Nate Bowling about the recent teacher strikes across America; and actress Gillian Anderson about her wide-spanning career. Michel Martin speaks with civil rights activist Harry Edwards about his career in civil rights activism in sports.

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