From the producers of FRONTLINE, a series
from a new generation of video journalists.
Stories From a Small Planet
ANNOUNCER: Tonight on FRONTLINE WORLD, three stories
from a small planet.
In Lebanon, inside the militant Islamic group Hezbollah.
GHASSAN TUENI, Lebanese newspaper publisher: There
is a great difference between Hezbollah and al Qaeda. Al
Qaeda is a bunch of fools. Hezbollah is not pure terrorist.
Hezbollah resorts to terrorism as an instrument, as a tool.
ANNOUNCER: Could they be next in the war on terror?
RICHARD ARMITAGE, Deputy Secretary of State: Theyre
on the list, and their time will come.
ANNOUNCER: And in Guatemala, the hunt for gourmet coffee.
SAM QUINONES, Reporter: They dont speak the
same language. They dont have any of the same cultural
references. About the only thing they do have in common,
really, is coffee.
ANNOUNCER: And finally, Nepal, where Sherpa women dream
of climbing Mount Everest.
Lebanon: Party of God
Reported by David Lewis
DAVID LEWIS, Reporter: [voice-over] Julius Caesar
called this place Heliopolis, the City of the Sun. Two thousand
years ago, the Romans built this temple to honor the god Jupiter.
It was the largest temple in the Roman Empire, and the ruins
are stunning. But I was almost alone here. Tourists avoid this
place because of its more recent history as a haven for terrorists.
Just over there, at the top of the hill, the militant Islamic
group Hezbollah trained its fighters.
[on camera] Were in the Bekaa Valley, on our way
to Baalbek, a Hezbollah stronghold. The Bekaa has been famous
for many years for having terrorist training camps, where terrorists
from all over the world would come, and Hezbollah terrorists
and others would train them-- counterfeiting, drug production,
like opium and hashish.
Is that a Syrian position there? Syrian?
[voice-over] Syrian soldiers occupy this part of Lebanon.
I had to stop at several checkpoints, both Syrian and Lebanese.
Those are Syrian guns. Theyre aimed at Israeli fighter
jets, which cruise over Lebanon at will.
Syria has about 20,000 troops in Lebanon, and they control
this town. The late Syrian dictator Hafez al Assad sent his
army here during Lebanons long civil war, and they never
I came here at the end of Ramadan, the Muslim holy period.
People were preparing to break their daily fast. Lebanon has
a large Christian population, but two thirds of the country
Hikmat Sharif is a Lebanese reporter who showed me the back
streets of Baalbek. This store sells Hezbollah souvenirs, like
these icons of Irans Ayatollah Khomeini, who once dreamed
of exporting Islamic revolution here. This is Sheikh Hassan
Nasrallah, Hezbollahs charismatic leader. They sell Hezbollah
rally music here and videos of Hezbollah guerrillas attacking
HIKMAT SHARIF: This is Perfume for the Martyrs.
DAVID LEWIS: This is Hezbollah perfume. Its called
Perfume of the Martyrs.
HIKMAT SHARIF: See, thats the flags of Hezbollah
with the pictures of all those people who died.
DAVID LEWIS: Martyrs are what Hezbollah calls their
fighters who died attacking the Israeli soldiers who invaded
and occupied Lebanon. Their images line the streets of Baalbek.
Some of these men were suicide bombers. They would inspire Palestinian
At the edge of town, Hikmat showed me where in the 1980s Hezbollah
used to hold Western hostages.
[on camera] So behind that building was where they were
keeping the hostages, in houses over there?
HIKMAT SHARIF: Long time ago, they used to keep the
hostages here. This is what they say.
DAVID LEWIS: And it was Hezbollah that was keeping them
HIKMAT SHARIF: Yeah.
DAVID LEWIS: [voice-over] The U.S. government
now considers Hezbollah to be one of the worlds most dangerous
terrorist groups, backed by Syria and by Iran.
HIKMAT SHARIF: From the beginning, when the Hezbollah
came here to Baalbek, the first place they come to, they come
to this area.
DAVID LEWIS: [on camera] This is the Iranian
Revolutionary Guards? [crosstalk]
HIKMAT SHARIF: They came here in 1981.
DAVID LEWIS: [voice-over] With weapons and money
from Iran, Hezbollah -- which means Party of God -- became a
major force in Lebanon in the 1980s.
Suddenly, Hikmat pulled over.
HIKMAT SHARIF: I will talk to him. You film me.
DAVID LEWIS: [on camera] OK. Oh, boy. This is
one of the kidnappers? Is that what he said, its one of
the kidnappers? OK.
[voice-over] Only in Baalbek. Hikmat had spotted a man
who had hijacked a passenger plane back in the 1980s.
HIKMAT SHARIF: Youre very lucky. Youre very
lucky. This guy kidnapped a Jordanian plane and bombed it.
DAVID LEWIS: [on camera] What?
HIKMAT SHARIF: They kidnap it. They went to many Arabic
countries. They bring it back. Then they bomb it.
DAVID LEWIS: [voice-over] Beirut still bears
the scars of its 17-year-long civil war between Christians and
Muslims, but there are many more signs of change. Today the
city is eager to reclaim the reputation it once had as the Paris
of the Middle East. In the fashionable restaurants, the tourists
are back. This family from Bahrain invited me to join them.
MAN FROM BAHRAIN: Let me give you some wine. We are
here just to see the Lebanon because we heard that theres
a new country coming in Lebanon after the war, after the civil
war. But something I have to tell you about Lebanon. Lebanon
so far has no middle class-- rich and poor, where you can find
very rich people who can afford to spend as much as can think
of, and poor who cant even afford to eat.
DAVID LEWIS: This Palestinian refugee camp is not far
from the newly Westernized center of the city, but its
a world away. Here and throughout the country, Hezbollah gained
legitimacy as the group that fought hardest against Israels
invasion of Lebanon. Theyre credited with finally driving
out the Israelis after almost 20 years of a sometimes brutal
occupation and after nearly 20,000 Lebanese had died.
I was able to negotiate my way into this Hezbollah political
rally celebrating the anniversary of the Iranian revolution.
Ayatollah Khomeini gazed down upon his fellow Shiites.
They chanted for the destruction of the Israeli state.
DEMONSTRATORS: [subtitles] Death, death,
death to Israel.
The secretary general of Hezbollah is Sheikh Hassan Nasrallah.
Instead of the usual rhetoric about Israel, Nasrallah inveighed
against the United States.
SHEIKH HASSAN NASRALLAH: [subtitles] The
American war on Iraq is not to save the Iraqi people, nor
is the goal of this American war the protection of the Kuwaiti
DAVID LEWIS: This rally was just before the war on Iraq.
SHEIKH HASSAN NASRALLAH: [subtitles] The
Americans are following in the footsteps of the British.
It is the duty of all to fight the Americans in defense
DAVID LEWIS: America and Hezbollah have a bloody history.
When the United States intervened in Lebanons civil war,
Hezbollah bombed the U.S. embassy twice. The shell of the embassy
annex still stands. In 1983, a Hezbollah truck bomb killed 241
Marines in Beirut. Hezbollah suicide bombers have killed more
Americans than any other terrorist group except for al Qaeda.
Next to the heavily fortified U.S. embassy, theres a
memorial to the Americans who died in the Hezbollah attacks.
This history took on new meaning after September 11th. Now some
in Washington want to go after Hezbollah.
RICHARD ARMITAGE, Deputy Secretary of State: [press
conference] Hezbollah may be the A-team of terrorists,
and maybe Al-Qaedas actually the B-team. And theyre
on the list, and their time will come. There is no question
about it. They have a blood debt to us and were not
going to forget it. And its all in good time.
DAVID LEWIS: Hezbollahs backers, Iran and Syria,
have long been on the U.S. list of state sponsors of terror.
Hezbollah was designated as a terrorist group in 1995.
[www.pbs.org: Trace the rise of Hezbollah]
Ironically, in Lebanon, Hezbollah has been remaking itself
as a mainstream political organization. They operate a satellite
TV channel which reaches an audience of 10 million people in
the Middle East, second only to Al Jazeera.
ANCHOR: Welcome to our news bulletin from Al Manar
channel in Beirut.
DAVID LEWIS: It broadcasts news and entertainment, as
well as propaganda like this.
Pres. GEORGE W. BUSH: Were going to hunt em
down. This mighty nation will not-- [pictures of George
W. Bush juxtaposed with Adolf Hitler]
DAVID LEWIS: But in Lebanon, theyve built a political
organization. In recent years, its become the second largest
political party in the Lebanese parliament. Amar Mussawi is
one of their legislators. He started as a Hezbollah fighter.
He was badly wounded. His brother was killed by the Israeli
AMAR MUSSAWI: [subtitles] What many Americans
are not aware of is that Hezbollah is a Lebanese resistance
movement against Israeli occupation.
DAVID LEWIS: [on camera] What was your reaction
to the attack on the World Trade Center September 11th?
AMAR MUSSAWI: [subtitles] Of course, this was
an unacceptable, unconscionable and irrational act.
DAVID LEWIS: [voice-over] Hezbollah has denounced
American intervention in the Middle East, but Mussawis
criticism of America was restrained.
AMAR MUSSAWI: [subtitles] America is a great
country with a lot of good people and a lot of good resources.
But when you have such a good country, you must adopt a more
just and global view of the issues of the rest of the world.
DAVID LEWIS: Hezbollah wants to show off their social
programs, to show the world they are more than just fighters
or terrorists. They took me on a tour of one of their hospitals,
one of the best in Beirut. And theyve been building neighborhood
clinics. Hezbollah runs a network of schools and social service
agencies, which has helped legitimize the group throughout Lebanon.
ENGLISH TEACHER: Do you know the name of this room?
STUDENT: Its a kitchen.
ENGLISH TEACHER: Its a kitchen! Clap for him!
DAVID LEWIS: For historically poor Shiite Muslims,
this is real progress. But its hard to ignore Hezbollahs
ideology and what some believe is indoctrination.
MUHAMMAD MUGRABI: The children who are educated through
their schools are formed in a certain way which is different
from other Lebanese children. It is a recipe for trouble for
DAVID LEWIS: Muhammad Mugrabi was one of the very few
Lebanese willing to talk critically of Hezbollah on camera.
MUHAMMAD MUGRABI: Hezbollah is supposed to be a political
party. In fact, it is an arm of the government. They are not
subject to the rule of law and the principle of equal treatment
under the law. They are more equal than other Lebanese.
DAVID LEWIS: Mugrabi, a Muslim himself, is a lawyer
and human rights activist. He challenged Hezbollah in court
MUHAMMAD MUGRABI: And this is the way it works with
Hezbollah. It has its own authority on behalf of the Lebanese
government, and no one can touch it.
DAVID LEWIS: So long as Hezbollah is supported by Syria,
their position in Lebanon is untouchable. Syria dominates this
country. This makes Lebanons independence day celebration
a strange exercise in political theater. The only guests were
government ministers, dignitaries and the press. Lebanese citizens
were not invited. Thats President Emile Lahoud on the
right. Hes democratically elected, but doesnt make
an important move without Syrian approval. And theres
General Soleiman, commander of the armed forces, but his troops
are overshadowed by the Syrian army. President Lahoud isnt
anxious to talk about Hezbollah or Syria. He turned down my
request for an interview.
The parade had a make-believe quality. The same eight helicopters
kept flying overhead. And for its closing number, the band played
a familiar song, the theme from Monty Python.
I headed south, to an area where the Lebanese army has no authority.
This is where Hezbollah holds sway, in the most heavily Shiite
part of the country. Its also where they won their greatest
military victories against Israel, fighting for almost two decades
until Israel withdrew in 2000. Their successful guerrilla tactics
became a model for radical Palestinians.
The United States wants the Lebanese army to replace the Hezbollah
fighters along the border with Israel, but Lebanon has refused,
unwilling to take on the Syrian-Hezbollah alliance. A thin blue
line of U.N. peacekeepers stands watch along the border. But
as a Hezbollah fighter approached, it was clear whos in
Its quiet here now, but as the U.S. pushes all the parties,
including Syria, towards a new Middle East peace plan, Hezbollah
says they will follow their own path.
Every year, Hezbollah shows off its muscle with a grand display
of force on Jerusalem Day. Officially, like Iran, they reject
Israels right to exist, but the message is also that theyll
defend their stake here in Lebanon.
Throughout my journey, I was told that to understand Hezbollah
and its future, I should talk to this man.
Grand Ayatollah SAYEED HASSAN FADLALLAH: [subtitles]
The American administration is an Israeli administration
governed by the Israelis, not by the American people.
DAVID LEWIS: Grand Ayatollah Sayeed Hassan Fadlallah
denies any official role but is considered the spiritual leader
of Hezbollah. Allegedly, hes the man who first gave religious
approval to suicide bombings back in the early 1980s. I asked
him if he had any regrets about all the blood that has been
shed in Lebanon, as well as Israel.
Grand Ayatollah SAYEED HASSAN FADLALLAH: [subtitles]
When these martyrdom operations take place during a time of
war, then they are governed by the logic of war. I am pained
by every drop of blood that is shed, but I believe those who
create this climate of war are responsible.
DAVID LEWIS: Fadlallah defends Hezbollah and Palestinian
militants as national resistance movements.
Grand Ayatollah SAYEED HASSAN FADLALLAH: [subtitles]
I see Hezbollah as a party that is trying to liberate its country
and liberate other countries perhaps suffering from occupation.
The resistance in Lebanon and the resistance in Palestine are
trying to liberate their countries from occupation.
DAVID LEWIS: It all seemed familiar and uncompromising.
Except for a moment when Fadlallah seemed to leave the door
open to a two-state political solution.
Grand Ayatollah SAYEED HASSAN FADLALLAH: [subtitles]
I am sure that if Israel withdrew, that not a single Palestinian
would commit any suicide attacks.
DAVID LEWIS: But in their rallies, I only heard a hard
line from Sheikh Nasrallah on the U.S. and Israel.
SHEIKH HASSAN NASRALLAH: [subtitles] The
intentions of the United States are clear. They wish to
control this region and redraw the map of this region. They
wish to give more prominence to Israel, to force their own
conditions on the Palestinians, Lebanese and others, and
to end the Arab-Israel conflict with Israels interests
DAVID LEWIS: This is the public rhetoric the U.S. will
have to contend with if its going to navigate the tough
road to peace in this region.
But when I saw Amar Mussawi, the Hezbollah politician, I was
reminded of what hed told me in private and which, in
the world of Hezbollah, passes for some measure of hope.
[on camera] Is there a possibility of peace between
Israel and Hezbollah?
AMAR MUSSAWI: [subtitles] Israel has a policy
of aggression and occupation. How can you have peace with such
a state? If there is no more aggression and no more occupation,
then we can talk.
DAVID LEWIS: As for that old blood debt with the United
States, theres little doubt how Hezbollah will respond
if the U.S. takes them on.
AMAR MUSSAWI: [subtitles] We will not stand idle
if we are attacked. We will defend ourselves with all means
possible. Whether it is Israel or the United States, whenever
we are attacked by somebody who wants to attack our lands, take
our freedom, we will reply.
DEMONSTRATORS: [Jerusalem Day rally] We take
an oath to God to uphold our promise! An oath to the One
ANNOUNCER: Coming up later, a journey to the Himalayas,
where a team of Sherpa women attempt to climb Mount Everest.
But first, the search for the perfect cup of coffee.
Guatemala: Coffee Country
Reported by Sam Quinones
SAM QUINONES, Reporter: [voice-over] Many people
think of Guatemala as the quintessential banana republic, but
its really more of a coffee republic. For years, its
been the number one industry here. This is what Ive come
expecting to find, a classic coffee plantation, Finca Dos Marias,
a way of life seemingly unchanged since the owners first built
this farmhouse 100 years ago, a mail-order design shipped from
Sears & Roebuck in boxes.
On the surface, it all seems ideal. But the owner, Mireya Jones,
whose great-grandfather built the Finca, says theres a
coffee crisis here. Worldwide, theres too much coffee,
and prices have plummeted. So to keep paying her workers a good
wage, Mireya has to subsidize them from family savings. Most
of her neighbors havent been able to do that and have
been forced to abandon their farms.
MIREYA JONES: This is our neighbors finca, that
had to be purchased or taken over by the government because
of the abandonment here. And you can see the difference. Lookit,
here are the-- the coffee trees are just literally missing among
the over-growth. And its so sad because this was a thriving
finca, with the same sort of quality coffee as ours.
SAM QUINONES: She sent us to check out her next-door
neighbors, the historic Baluarte estate.
[on camera] Oh, man! Look at this house! This is what
happens when coffee prices hit historic lows. People just get
the hell out. Were in the middle of a-- of a home thats
just simply gorgeous-- large rooms, hardwood floors, tall ceilings.
No one lives here.
[voice-over] Though no one was living in the hacienda,
a few hundred of the workers had formed a cooperative and started
to farm the land. The competition from huge new coffee plantations
in Brazil and Vietnam have driven down the price of coffee,
and now they had nowhere to sell their beans. It was piling
up and beginning to rot.
FARMER: [subtitles] So were looking for
markets where we can sell the coffee for a better price and
help us solve our business problems.
SAM QUINONES: The crisis has devastated the area. The
pueblo of La Reforma is like a ghost town. Once-thriving stores
have been left with empty shelves. The only work around here
is in coffee. These men are still trying to make a living in
(on camera): Hes just had to take his kids out of school.
No money. They have to work to help maintain the family. Thats--
thats the bottom line.
WORKER: [subtitles] Of course were sad
about this, but if we cant even afford food, how can we
send them to school?
SAM QUINONES: [voice-over] And even local farmers
with their own fields are trapped at the bottom of the system.
[on camera] He just told me that hes getting 7
cents a pound for his coffee, way below the cost of what it
takes to grow it. And hes getting that primarily because
he has no access to anything besides middlemen.
SAM QUINONES: Coyotes.
[www.pbs.org: Follow your coffee order]
SAM QUINONES: [voice-over] We found out what
it would mean for the people left with no jobs.
[on camera] He wants to leave here. He wants to emigrate
illegally to the United States. Thats how tough things
are. He just has no other option. He wants to get out of here.
[voice-over] Mr. Lopez wanted to follow the path of
many in La Reforma who had made the perilous trip north to try
and cross illegally into the United States.
Up the hill at Finca Dos Marias, the workers and their children
are still protected. The plantations school children greet
a group of visiting Americans. Theyre coffee buyers and
the people weve followed here. This is Bob Stiller. Hes
the founder of Green Mountain, a Vermont specialty coffee company.
On his visit to the finca, he wasnt expecting Mireya Jones
to take him next door to the Baluarte estate. She wants him
to listen to the plight of the co-op workers, whose only real
hope of survival is to find a buyer like Green Mountain. Unless
that happens, many of them will have to leave the farm.
INTERPRETER: They are interested to know what are you
going to do because they are in an association of 125 people,
and they are completely out of money at this time.
BOB STILLER: [unintelligible] say that we would
be interested in the higher-quality coffee, if theyre
needing money. You know, we would not be interested in their
lower grades. And maybe they could do something with that because
cause we couldnt help them with that.
FARMER: [subtitles] This is our first crop of
coffee. Were praying to God and hoping that you can help
JEFF WETTSTEIN, CFO Green Mountain Coffee Roasters:
We have purchased much of our coffee for this year, and we will
try to buy some amount. And we dont know how much today.
So much depends on the cup quality, as we evaluate it over these
next few days.
SAM QUINONES: Bob Stiller is in a tough position. He
wants to help these farmers, but he can only commit to buying
the kind of high-quality coffee that would appeal to his upscale
BOB STILLER: Its a very complex situation that
really perplexes me, how to help these people. I mean, you have
125 families here, with land and opportunity. They all want
to work hard. They want to live a life, and we dont have
an answer. You know, we can try a few things but, you know,
is it going to work?
SAM QUINONES: There is some hope for the workers at
the Baluarte estate. Later we found out that some of their coffee
met Green Mountains standards, and Bob Stiller agreed
to buy from them. The cooperative will survive another year.
Flying south, our pilot pointed out one abandoned coffee field
after another. Coffee was once Guatemalas number one source
of cash. These days, the country gets more money from immigrants
in the United States sending funds home to their families. Its
this crisis that has brought Bob Stiller here, together with
Nell Newman, who runs Newmans Own Organics.
Were on our way to visit an organic cooperative near
the shores of Lake Atitlan. The only way to get to our destination
was to hike high into the mountains on an ancient Mayan trail.
This is one of Green Mountains suppliers. They deal directly
with these farmers, paying a good price for their high-quality
coffee, cutting out the coyotes and leaving more money for the
cooperative. Unlike the big coffee producers, they rely entirely
on organic farming methods.
NELL NEWMAN: Do they compost? Do they--
Its very different to read a book about how coffee is made
and to look at some pictures than to actually physically come
here and walk up through the dust, into the jungle and see it.
SAM QUINONES: Because of their growing methods and that
theyre a cooperative with no middlemen, Green Mountain
will pay them a guaranteed price. Its a concept called
LYNSEY BOLGER, Green Mountain Coffee: [subtitles]
The main coffee we use in this is from your farm.
FARMER: [subtitles] Except its roasted?
LYNSEY BOLGER: [subtitles] Yes.
SAM QUINONES: Before this moment, theyve never
actually seen their own coffee in the package. Green Mountain
uses the images of indigenous farmers to sell their coffee in
upscale supermarkets. But this is the first time theyve
even smelled the roasted coffee.
Like most Guatemalans, these farmers dont even drink
coffee. Indigenous people in Guatemala drink lots of sweet sodas.
They may have tried low-grade coffee before, but this it the
first time theyve tasted what upscale consumers in the
States want. This village is doing well. Because of Fair Trade,
they feel their children have a future.
[on camera] He has been able to send his son to university
-- hes studying accounting -- in the capital, in Guatemala
PAUL RICE: Fair Trade is a model that helps small family
farmers in coffee-producing countries to get organized, to develop
their own marketing businesses and to take their coffee direct
to the market.
SAM QUINONES: [voice-over] This is Paul Rice.
He certifies and promotes Fair Trade around the world.
PAUL RICE: Fair trade farmers today are getting a $1.26
per pound, as compared with what the farmers here are telling
us theyre getting from local buyers, on average around
20 cents per pound. So the difference is enormous, and that
difference, in concrete terms, means being able to stay on the
land with your family, as opposed to having to abandon your
family to move to the United States.
SAM QUINONES: Here in Mexico, where the coffee crisis
affects many more people than in Guatemala, Fair Trade has just
begun to take hold in a few places.
[on camera] Were on a very bumpy, very jagged
road leading up to a village called Los Naranjos, Mountains
of Oaxaca, which is a coffee-growing area where the buyers on
this trip have been buying coffee for about three or four years,
[voice-over] Everyone in this Zapotek Indian village
is part of a Fair Trade cooperative.
BOB STILLER: Their coffee is one of the finest produced
from the organic Fair Trade, and Im very excited to be
here to thank everyone from my heart for the great work that
they do. Gracias.
SAM QUINONES: [on camera] You know, this is--
youre trying to bring together people who almost literally
have nothing in common. They dont speak the same language.
They dont have any of the same cultural references. About
the only thing they do have in common really is coffee. Thats
about it, you know? And so its really awkward.
[voice-over] But what they do have in common is a need
to get to know each other. And if theyre going to be partners,
theyre going to have to learn about each others
strange tribal rituals.
BUYER: [subtitles] When you have the coffee
ready, you put in the boiling water. This is called a "French
press." You do it like this.
SAM QUINONES: You could see these guys as modern-day
conquistadores, this time converting Zapotek Indians to coffee
instead of Christianity. But thats too cynical. One of
the by-products of globalization that I like is the strange
bedfellows it creates. The growers we met here were quite savvy,
pressing the Green Mountain folks for low-interest loans so
they could process the coffee right here and increase their
DAVE GRISWALD: Historically, in Mexico, the tradition
has been that everybody just-- coffee is coffee. Theres
been a tendency to sort of put all those beans together, and
now were saying, "No, separate out the very best
ones. Get them certified for organic because you dont
put chemicals on them and you can sell them for a higher price."
But thats-- that makes it difficult because youre
changing decades and decades of behavior.
SAM QUINONES: Thats whats happening here,
at a mill in the state of Veracruz. They used to process the
good with the bad. Now their energies go into sifting out the
highest-quality beans. Here on the belt, workers are looking
for the one bad bean that can spoil 100 pounds of coffee. These
workers are trying to reinvent themselves as quality-control
Teaching the art of perfection is part of Lynsey Bolgers
job. Shes a Green Mountain coffee taster, one of the best
in the business. Lynsey treats coffee as a specialty gourmet
drink, something like wine. Here shell decide if two batches
of coffee meet Green Mountains standards. Its a
tense moment. Without a Fair Trade price, the farmers will actually
lose money on their harvest.
LYNSEY BOLGER: Theres a lot of coffee riding on
this particular exercise, to the tune of about 37,000 pounds
of coffee. Were in a position now to approve this coffee
or reject it, so its kind of the moment of truth.
What were looking for is a 75, at a minimum. Ideally,
these coffees will score in the high 70s, low 80s. The first
sample, I found it to be a little thin, and I actually found
one cup that had a very astringent flavor, which I detected
as a defect, and I think it was an under-ripe bean.
[subtitles] The first coffee I gave a 74.
SAM QUINONES: Its a mixed result for the cooperative.
Lynsey can only commit to buy half of their coffee. This may
seem tough, but they say that over the last two years, theyve
learned from the rigorous process.
[on camera] Theyre telling me, of course, that
this really helps them determine which is the better coffee,
which coffee can be sold at specialty rates to a specialty public,
and which not.
[voice-over] It had never occurred to me before how
much depends on this, on these careful but subjective judgments
and, until Id made this journey, how much is at stake
and how many lives can be affected by the taste of a cup of
I headed home to Mexico City, where there was one stop I had
[on camera] Were heading up Insurgentes, not far
from where I live in La Colonia Roma. Were heading to
[voice-over] It turns out Starbucks had just opened
their first branch in Mexico-- in fact, the first Starbucks
in all of Latin America. Inside the comforting bubble of Starbucks,
theres no coffee crisis, unless you consider the price
of a grande latte.
[on camera] [subtitles] A frappucino please.
[voice-over] Not that it usually matters to me.
[on camera] I hate coffee, OK?
CLERK: [subtitles] You hate it?
SAM QUINONES: [subtitles] Its not for
me, its for him.
[voice-over] Like me, Mexicans are not big coffee drinkers.
But there is a growing middle class in Mexico, and theyre
ready to try something new. Starbucks has made a lot of money
selling specialty coffee, and they actually sell Fair Trade
coffee. But its a small percentage of their business,
and mostly you have to ask for it. Most of the customers we
talked to hadnt heard of the concept.
But maybe, just maybe, its one way some of this coffee
money can get back to the people in the fields who need to earn
a living from it.
ANNOUNCER: Finally, Sherpa women on top of the world.
Nepal: Dreams of Chomolongma
Reported by Ramyata Limbu and Sapana Sakya
SAPANA SAKYA, Reporter: Theres a fire that burns
at Everest base camp, a puja. The Sherpas light incense before
every expedition to seek permission from the mountain. They
keep it burning as long as a team is on the mountain, to pray
for their safety. To the Sherpa people, the mountain is Chomolongma,
Mother, Goddess of the Universe. Ever since the first men summited
Everest 50 years ago, many have followed in their footsteps.
Many have perished. And no Sherpa woman has survived the mountain.
This puja is for five Sherpa women who hope to make history.
Along the Everest trail, in the shadow of the regions
most famous monastery, Tengboche, there is a lodge popular with
trekkers and mountaineers. Its run by the eldest member
of the team, Mingma.
MINGMA: [subtitles] I try to prove that even
without a man, I can succeed.
SAPANA SAKYA: Mingmas mother remembers her daughters
MINGMAS MOTHER: [subtitles] When I was
in labor with Mingma, my body suffered terribly. Right after
she was born, I said to my husband, "The baby is here."
He looked at the baby and said, "What good is another daughter?"
I washed the baby and held her to my breast and she started
to feed. I felt sorry for her, so I decided to keep her.
SAPANA SAKYA: Mingma has been a successful businesswoman
since her divorce nine years ago. She had planned to climb Everest
with her ex-husband, but she says he simply wanted to use her
as his porter.
MINGMA: [subtitles] I lost my desire to climb
after that. Im going to climb Everest to prove that women
are no less than men.
SAPANA SAKYA: The Sherpa womens team is confident
of making it to the top of Everest, especially the youngest
DAWA: [subtitles] I think this climb will be
easy. We climb these mountains just to graze our yaks.
SAPANA SAKYA: Dawa, like many Sherpa women, did not
go to school.
DAWA: [subtitles] I started to work as a child
to help my family. I worked as a yak driver, bringing supplies
to base camps.
SAPANA SAKYA: Forming the first Nepalese womens
team was Lakpas idea. She is the leader. Lakpa is always
LAKPA: [subtitles] Its difficult for me
to walk slowly. When I hike, I like to be in my own world.
SAPANA SAKYA: Lakpas distance from the team disturbed
Mingma and the others.
MINGMA: [subtitles] Thats not good for
a leader. Shes supposed to oversee things.
LAKPA: [subtitles] Its not that I dont
want to walk with them. But when I walk slowly, I feel more
sluggish. So if I walk fast, my body warms up and I feel stronger.
SAPANA SAKYA: Like Mingma, team leader Lakpa was driven
to succeed despite the obstacles she faced in her life.
LAKPA: [subtitles] Im not an educated person.
I dont want to get married. I had a terrible experience
once. We werent married, we were in love. I have a son.
He was not faithful to me. He had many other women. He looked
down on me because I was from the country.
If I climb Everest, I can be somebody. I can be famous. I want
to dedicate my life to the Himalayas.
SAPANA SAKYA: At 17,500 feet, the womens team
and their male support staff quickly settle in. Their comfort
at high altitude gives them an edge over the foreign expeditions.
MALE SHERPA: If this was a foreign womens team,
we would just say "Yes, yes" to orders. But because
they are like our sisters, we advise them. Sometimes we even
MINGMA: [subtitles] All the men teased us, saying
it would be hard. But they were all wrong. They said wed
be on our hands and knees across the ladders at the Icefall.
But that didnt happen. We had a great time.
SAPANA SAKYA: Just above Base Camp, climbers must cross
the treacherous Khumbu Icefall, a constantly shifting glacier
riddled with deep crevasses. But team leader Lakpa doesnt
think about death.
LAKPA: [subtitles] I wont force things
on the mountain. If you worry about death, it will affect your
will to continue.
SAPANA SAKYA: The team must cross the Icefall many times
to set up camps at higher and higher altitudes.
LAKPA: [subtitles] Im not thinking about
my family. The only thing I think about is whether Ill
make it. I wont turn back until I summit.
SAPANA SAKYA: Going up is just halfway. The only other
Sherpa woman to attempt Everest died on her way down.
The night before leaving to set up the last camp, the team
is in good spirits. The Sherpas are well aware of the dangers
PHURBA: [subtitles] Its hard. There might
be high winds or deep snow that could make you turn back.
SAPANA SAKYA: For the Sherpas, Chomolongma is in control,
not the climber. There are many superstitions. The womens
team has been on the mountain for three days now, setting up
Camp 3 at 23,000 feet. Mingma and Dawa descend across the Icefall
for their last rest at Base Camp. Mingma tells about her night
at Camp 3.
MINGMA: [subtitles] Im not going up again.
I had a nightmare that made me feel uneasy. I dreamt a shopkeeper
handed me six bloody chicken heads. And all these monks came
to visit me.
SAPANA SAKYA: Sherpas believe that dreams with monks
and blood foreshadow death.
MINGMA: [subtitles] Once I had a similar experience,
where I had a bad dream and fell very ill. Thats why I
dont want to risk it this time. Im really sorry,
but what can I do? I have two children. Theres no one
else to look after them.
SAPANA SAKYA: In the next few days, two other women
will drop out, leaving only Lakpa and young Dawa to attempt
the summit. The team is camped at 26,300 feet to gather strength
for their last push to the peak. Mingma and the other women
wait impatiently at Base Camp. Theyre confident at least
Dawa will summit. But over the next few days, the weather deteriorates
and they lose radio contact.
It is clear something has gone wrong. Climbers are descending.
Dawa had reached over 28,000 feet, only a few hundred feet short
of the summit. She was ahead of Lakpa and decided to wait. While
waiting, she became ill and insisted that she did not want to
continue the climb. Now shes regretting her decision.
Lakpa is now their only hope.
MINGMA: [subtitles] Hello, Everest summit?
Everest summit? Over.
SAPANA SAKYA: At 6:30 AM, they finally hear from the
PHURBA: [subtitles] Lakpa has reached the
summit. The teams a success!
MINGMA: OK. OK. [subtitles] Congratulations
from Base Camp. Were all very happy.
LAKPAS COUSIN: [subtitles] Did you
LAKPA: [subtitles] Yes. We reached the top.
SAPANA SAKYA: Lakpa fulfilled her dream.
LAKPAS COUSIN: [subtitles] When are
you coming down?
LAKPA: [subtitles] I still feel attached
to Everest. Ill stay at Camp Two a little longer.
SAPANA SAKYA: Lakpa has become the first Nepalese woman
to summit Everest and survive. After the climb, Mingma went
back to running her lodge. Dawa got married, and shes
busy with her 2-year-old baby. And Lakpa became a national hero
and then summited Everest a second time. This month, shes
back on the mountain, trying again. She wants to be the first
woman ever to reach the summit three times.
PARTY OF GOD
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