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Cross-Curricular - Math
 • Determine the Sampling Method of an Informal Survey • Vary the Display of Data on the Global Spread of HIV/AIDS • Calculate When the Oil Industry Will Dry Up • Graph Population Data to Inform City Planning

Determine the Sampling Method of an Informal Survey

The Activity

Review with students the different kinds of sampling methods for surveys and polls, including random, systematic, convenience, and judgment sampling. Then, explain that you are going to show them a short video where a man conducts a poll on a volatile issue facing the new Iraqi government. Ask them to apply their knowledge of sampling to determine which method is being used in the poll shown in the video. Then show the 16-minute FRONTLINE/World Rough Cut video, "Return to Kirkuk".
pbs.org/frontlineworld/rough/2005/06/return_to_kirku_1.html
Following the video, discuss the sampling method used, why that method was likely chosen, and how that method affects the reliability of the survey results. As an extension of this activity, compare the survey method and results of the poll shown in the video to another poll taken on the same issue on the same day, as described in the Aljazeera article, "Kurdish Party Says Self-rule Inevitable".
home.cogeco.ca/~kurdistan5/7-2-05-independence-landslide.htm

Relevant National Standards

Mathematics, Standard 6: Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis

Level III, Benchmark 10: Understands basic concepts about how samples are chosen (e.g., random samples, bias in sampling procedures, limited samples, sampling error)

Level IV, Benchmark 8: Understands how concepts of representativeness, randomness, and bias in sampling can affect experimental outcomes and statistical interpretations

Vary the Display of Data on the Global Spread of HIV/AIDS

The Activity

Display the FRONTLINE/World feature, "Mapping the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic".
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india304/aids1.html
Show the section, "The Global Spread of HIV/AIDS" and point out how pie charts are used to show how many men, women, and children are living with HIV/AIDS in each region. Ask students to take the same data set and use bar graphs to compare the numbers of men living with HIV/AIDS in each region. Have them do the same for women and children. In which region of the world are the most children living with HIV/AIDS? In which are the least? Determine the same for men and women, and then compare these findings with the bar graph that runs across the bottom of "The Global Spread of HIV/AIDS" map. Are the messages conveyed by each of these displays the same or different?

Relevant National Standards

Mathematics, Standard 6: Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis

Level III, Benchmark 6: Organizes and displays data using tables, graphs (e.g., line, circle, bar), frequency distributions, and plots

Level III, Benchmark 8: Understands that the same set of data can be represented using a variety of tables, graphs, and symbols and that different modes of representation often convey different messages

Calculate When the Oil Industry Will Dry Up

The Activity

Have students use the statistics provided in the feature "Charting the World's Oil"
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/colombia/oil.html

• Based on the current level of oil production for each country (given in millions of barrels per day in "Where Is the World's Oil Currently Produced?"), in what year will each country's oil reserves (given in billions of barrels remaining in "Where Are the World's Oil Reserves?") run out?
• What is the projected percentage of increase in world and U.S. oil demand between now and the year 2020? (See the Surprising Facts section.)
After students have finished their calculations, have them discuss these questions.
• How might the United States' demand for oil influence its foreign policy decisions?
• How could the United States decrease its demand for oil?

Resources

Web site for "Charting the World's Oil"
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/colombia/oil.html

Visit the FRONTLINE/World Fellows story "Peru: Gamble in the Jungle" for another look at the issues involved in balancing natural resource exploration and the environment:
pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/peru0803/

Relevant National Standards

Mathematics, Standard 3: Uses basic and advanced procedures while performing the processes of computation

Related Activities

This activity is part of a suite of activities developed around the theme of Environment. Additional activities under this theme include:

Address Concerns Caused by Conflict in Colombia (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_colombia.html

Documenting a Historic Climb of Mount Everest (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_nepal.html

Graph Population Data to Inform City Planning

The Activity

Curitiba is a city in Brazil that has been highly praised for its innovative approaches to solving common urban problems. Show students where the city of Curitiba is on a map. Explain that in order to develop an effective plan for a city, leaders need to consider population statistics and other data to help them make informed decisions.

Have students read print-outs of the FRONTLINE/World Fellow feature The Development of Brazil's City of the Future.
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/fellows/brazil1203/master-plan.html
As they read, students should create a data table that notes Curitiba's population at various points in time. Students should also highlight or underline strategies that city leaders put in place to meet the needs of Curitiba's growing population.

Next, ask students to create a line graph, a bar graph or other visual representation of the population statistics in their data table. Have them put population figures down the left side and years across the top. Be sure that students properly label their graphs. If needed, review with students how to consider the range of data as they determine an appropriate scale for the graph.

Compute the rate of population growth for each time period and create a graph of that data as well. Compare the two graphs and talk about the value of each when analyzing data. Also discuss the following questions:

• How does the rate of population growth change over time?
• What factors generally affect population growth?
• What data (for example, birth and death rates, past growth rates, and so on) would be important to consider when predicting future population growth?
• Why is it important to be able to predict population growth?
• What changes did Curitiba city leaders make over time to meet the demands of the city's growing population? How could population data analysis potentially have affected the planning for each strategy?

Relevant National Standards

Mathematics
Standard 6: Understands and applies basic and advanced concepts of statistics and data analysis

Benchmark: Organizes and displays data using tables, graphs, frequency distributions and plots