Procedures
Overview:
This lesson plan is used to
introduce a unit on transportation and how it has changed
from 1899 to 2001. It is based on the Harriman Alaska
Expedition of 1899, an expedition that used almost every
mode of travel available in that time period. Most of the
participants took trains to reach the starting point in
Seattle, then traveled by boat up the coast. Along the way
they used row-boats, naphtha-powered motorboats, canoes,
horses, and the railroad to explore different spots along
the way. They also used foot power. In Glacier Bay, for
example, Harriman and several others hiked forty-eight miles
in two days, hoping to find bear.
Introduction:
Begin by having students reach
into the feeling box (a cardboard box with a hole cut in it
and a piece of material acting as a curtain) one at a time.
The box contains a toy car, a toy plane, and a toy boat. As
the students reach into the box, the teacher states that the
box contains three items and asks the students to think
about what these three things have in common. After every
student has had a turn the whole class meets to discuss what
the items are and their relationship.
Introduce the term
transportation to the students –&emdash; this
is a means or way of getting people or things from one place
to another. Ask the students if they can think of modes of
transportation besides cars, planes, and boats.
Write and draw a picture to
create a list of the students' ideas on chart
paper.
Class Activities Part I –
Making a Class Transportation Graph
After the students have finished
giving as many modes of transportation as they can, display
the shapes of a car, boat, bus, plane, and train cut from
large colored or butcher paper. Divide each shape in half
with a line, marking one side “Yes,” the other “No.”
Explain that these will become graphs, charts what kinds of
transportation students in this class have used.
Tell the students they are going
to chart what modes of transportation they have used by
placing a circle on the “yes” side of the graphs
that they’ve used, a circle on the “no”
side of the ones they have not used yet. Give each student
five circles, and working one-at-a-time or in groups, have
them tape their circles to the correct side of each graph.
(Optional: they can draw a face or another design on their
circles, but this will take additional time.)
When students finish placing the
faces on the graphs, ask them for observations.
Class Activities Part II –
Traveling to Alaska in 1899
Review the definition of
transportation, and list the different modes shown on the
graphs. Remind the students that these graphs give us
information about transportation today. Introduce the idea
of history, the study of things that happened in the
past.
Tell the students to imagine
they are going on a trip that will begin in New York and go
to Alaska. Show them the globe and the beginning point and
the destination. Now tell them that over 100 years ago in
1899 a man named Edward H. Harriman went on this trip and
called it the Harriman Alaska Expedition. As a comparison,
show students their own location on the globe.
Share stories from the
introduction to the 1899 trip from the Web site, and include
facts about transportation. Edward Harriman was a railroad
owner. On the trip, he had a special train take many of the
people from New York to Seattle by train. It took several
days, during which time they ate and slept while the train
traveled west.
Some of the people used cameras
to take pictures of the things they saw. By looking at the
photographs on the computer, we can join them on a virtual
expedition. Use the web site to show the students the
photographs. Be certain to include the photographs that show
the modes of transportation . Discuss the photos as you find
them. Discuss what the journey would have been like. (Would
it be fast or slow? Would you be comfortable? How long do
you think it would take?)
After looking at the
photographs, ask the students to talk about the modes of
transportation the Harriman Alaska Expedition used. Write
and draw the modes of transportation on a piece of chart
paper that is labeled "Harriman Alaska Expedition, 1899."
Give the students a piece of drawing a paper and markers to
draw a mode of transportation the people in 1899 used on the
Harriman Alaska Expedition. Students color and cut out their
pictures. Collect the pictures for the next day.
Classroom Activities Part III
– Transportation Then and Now:
Review transportation the
different modes discussed, and review the Harriman Alaska
Expedition and how the people traveled to Alaska.
Tell the students that a group
of people are going to retrace their journey using the modes
of transportation we have today in 2001. The beginning point
is New York.
Would the people in 2001 travel
in the same mode of transportation today? Why or why
not?
Remind the class that in 1899,
people used trains, horses and carriages, and steamers to
get to Alaska. Today most people would use a plane to get to
Alaska.
Discuss all of the different
modes of transportation that would be used and why. Note how
the boats/ships have changed. (Have the students look at the
picture of the steamer George W Elder and the ship
the Clipper Odyssey on the web site.
Give the students a piece of
drawing paper and marker to draw a mode of transportation
that would be used in 2001. After the students have colored
and cut out their pictures, pass out the papers from
yesterday. Explain that the students are going to place
their pictures on the bulletin board labeled "Transportation
Past and Present." They must decide if the picture will go
on the side that is labeled "The Harriman Alaska Expedition,
1899" or the side that is labeled "Harriman Expedition
Retraced, 2001."
As the students place their
pictures on the bulletin board, they will state how
transportation has changed over the last 100
years.
Assessment
Suggestions