from sea to shining sea

Lumbee History
An historical timeline
Lumbee Dialect
An unique variety that bears the imprint of British English, Highland Scots, and Scots-Irish

audio Lumbee English
Samples of this unique American voice

Additional Resources
American Varieties Index

American Varieties

Lumbee Publications

Sociolinguistic Publications on Lumbee English

  • Towards a Socionarratology: New Ways of Analyzing Natural-language Narratives, Narratologies: New Perspectives on Narrative Analysis. Ed. David Herman. Columbus: Ohio State University Press, 1999.218-46.
  • Spatial Reference in Narrative Domains. _TEXT_ 21.4 (2001): 515-541.
  • Pragmatic Constraints on Narrative Processing: Actants and Anaphora Resolution in a Corpus of North Carolina Ghost Stories. Journal of Pragmatics_ 32.6 (2000): 959-1001.
  • Dannenberg, Clare. 1999. Null copula and ethnic distinctions: Grammatical and phonological distribution in a tri-ethnic county. Journal of English Linguistics 27:356-370.
  • Dannenberg, Clare, and Walt Wolfram. 1998. Ethnic identity and grammatical restructuring: Be(s) in Lumbee English. American Speech 73:139-159.
  • Dannenberg, Clare, and Walt Wolfram. 1999. The Roots of Lumbee English. Raleigh: North Carolina Language and Life Project.
  • Locklear, Hayes Alan, Walt Wolfram, Natalie Schilling-Estes, and Clare Dannenberg. 1999. A Dialect Dictionary of Lumbee English. Raleigh, NC: North Carolina Language and Life Project
  • Schilling-Estes, Natalie. submitted. Intra-Ethnic differentiation and cross-ethnic accommodation: /ay/ in Lumbee Native American English.
  • Schilling-Estes, Natalie. submitted. Situated ethnicities: Constructing and reconstructing identity in the sociolinguistic interview.
  • Wolfram, Walt. 1996. Delineation and description in dialectology: The case of perfective I'm in Lumbee English.American Speech 70:5-26.
  • Wolfram, Walt, and Jason Sellers. 1999. Ethnolinguistic marking of past be in Lumbee Vernacular English.Journal of English Linguistics 27:94-114.
  • <>Wolfram, Walt, and Clare Dannenberg. 1999. Dialect identity in a tri-ethnic context: The case of Lumbee American Indian English.English World-Wide 20:179-216.
    Source: North Carolina State University

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Suggested Reading/Additional Resources

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Sponsored by:

National Endowment for the Humanities Hewlett Foundation Ford Foundation   Arthur Vining Davis Foundations Carnegie Corporation

National Endowment
for the Humanities

William and Flora Hewlett


Rosalind P.

Arthur Vining
Davis Foundations

Corporation of New York