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Alexander Graham Bell's Path to the Telephone

American Institute of Physics History Center


Lucent/Bell Labs
Bell Laboratories Background

Fairchild Semiconductor and their history of innovation

Field Effect Transistors. Part of a basic electronics course written by and copyright © 1995, C. G. Lesurf (, University of St. Andrews, Scotland.

"A History of Physics at Purdue: The First Phase of the Lark-Horovitz Era, 1928-1942" by Solomon Gartenhaus, Arnold Tubis, and David Cassidy

How Europe Missed the Transistor (HTML or PDF) copyright © 2005 IEEE Spectrum.

IEEE Virtual Museum (electricity, microelectronics)


Inventors of the Modern Computer: ARPAnet--The First Internet

Karl Lark-Horovitz

The Materials Research Society

Moore's Law and Gordon Moore

"The Origin of Semiconductor Research at Purdue: A Glance at the Past by One of the Early Participants" by Ralph Bray

PBS Online's "A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries": Eniac
PBS Online's "A Science Odyssey: People and Discoveries": The Internet gives rise to the World Wide Web
PBS Online's: "Nerds 2.0.1: A Brief History of the Internet"

Sony corporation and its History

The Silicon Genesis Project
Silicon Genesis: Interview with Ted Hoff
Silicon Genesis: Interview with Gordon Moore

Telecom History

Texas Instruments

Theodore N. Vail

Transistor Links

The Transistor Museum - photos, interviews, links, etc.

Print Resources

Bassett, Ross Knox. "To the Digital Age: Research Labs, Start-up Companies, and the Rise of MOS Technology." Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2002.

Bevitt, William Dealtry. Transistors Handbook. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall, Inc, 1956. 

Bowker, American Men and Women of Science.

Brattain, Walter H. "Genesis of the Transistor." The Physics Teacher (March 1968) 109-114. 

Braun, Ernest and Stuart Macdonald. Revolution in Miniature: The History and Impact of Semiconductor Electronics. New York: Cambridge Press, 1978. 

Considine, Douglas M. et al.  Van Nostrand's Scientific Encyclopedia, 7th edition.  New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1989. 

De Forest, Lee. Father of Radio: The Autobiography of  Lee de Forest.  Chicago: Wilcox and Follett, Co., 1950. 

Eckert, Michael and Helmut Schubert. Crystals, Electrons, Transistors: From Scholar's Study to Industrial Research 1986. Thomas Huges, trans. New York: American Institute of Physics, 1990.

Feynman, Richard.  The Feynman Lectures on Physics.  Addison-Wesley Pub. Co, 1970. 

Gorton, W.S. "The Genesis of the Transistor, Memorandum for Record," in A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Physical Sciences (1925-1980), S. Millman, ed. Bell Telephone Labs, 1985. 

Grun, Bernard, ed.  Time Tables of History. 3rd ed. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. Henriksen, Paul W. "Solid State Physics Research at Purdue." Osiris 3, Series 2, vol.3. (1987): 237-260. 

Herring, Conyers.  "Recollections from the Early Years of Solid-State Physics." Physics Today (April 1992): 26-33. 

Hoddeson, Lillian.  "The Entry of Quantum Theory of Solids into the Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1925-40."  Minerva 18,  422-47.

---. "The Roots of Solid State Research at Bell Labs."  Physics Today. (March 1977).   

Hoddeson, Lillian, and Vicki Daitch. "True Genius: The Life and Science of John Bardeen, the only Winner of Two Nobel Prizes in Physics." Washington, DC: Joseph Henry Press, 2005.

Hoddeson, Lillian, Ernest Braun and Spencer Weart.  Out of the Crystal Maze:  Chapters from the History of Solid State Physics.  New York: Oxford University Press, 1992. 

Holonyak, Jr., Nick.  "John Bardeen and the Point-Contact Transistor." Physics Today. (April 1992). 

Lécuyer, Christophe. "Making Silicon Valley: Innovation and the Growth of Hight Tech, 1930-1970." Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2005.

Lindley, David.  Where Does the Weirdness Go? Why Quantum Mechanics Is Strange but Not As Strange As You Think.  New York: Harper Collins, 1996. 

Macaulay, David.  The Way Things Work. Boston: Houghton Mifflin,1988.

Maize, Kennedy. "Fathers of Communication Satellite Honored." Newsbytes News Network. October 3, 1995. 

Millman, S.  ed.  A History of Engineering and Science in the Bell System: Physical Sciences (1925-1980).  Murray Hill: Bell Telephone Laboratories, 1985. 

Noyce, Robert. "Microelectronics."  Scientific American 237, no.3 (September 1977): 63-69. 

Queisser, Hans. The Conquest of the Microchip. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1988. 

Reid, T.R. The Chip: How Two Americans Invented the Microchip and Launched a Revolution. New York: Random House, 2001.

Riordan, Michael and Lillian Hoddeson. Crystal Fire: The Invention of the Transistor and the Birth of the Information Age. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1997. 

---. "The Moses of Silicon Valley." Physics Today (Dec. 1997).

Riordan, Michael. "The Lost History of the Transistor," IEEE Spectrum (May 2004): 44-49.

---. "How Europe Missed the Transistor." IEEE Spectrum (Nov. 2005): 46-48.
(HTML or PDF) copyright © 2005 IEEE Spectrum.

Rotsky, George. "25th Anniversary-Electronics at the Threshold of the New Millennium"  Electronic Engineering Times (October 30, 1997). 

Seitz, Frederick.  On the Frontier: My Life in Science.  New York: American Instiute of Physics, 1994. 

Seitz, Frederick and Norman G. Einspruch.   Electronic Genie: The Tangled History of Silicon.. Urbana and Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1998. 

Shockley, William. "Holes and Electrons." Physics Today 3, no. 10 (October, 1950): 16-24. 

---.  "How We Invented the Transistor." New Scientist 21. (December, 1972): 689-91. 

"Sony Co-founder Ibuka Dies at 89." AP Newswire. (December 19, 1997) 

Stewart, Charles C. and Peter Fritzsche, eds.  Imagining the Twentieth Century. contributors, Walter L. Arnstein et al. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1997. 

"Team of Three Texas Instuments Engineers Invented the Portable, Hand-Held Electronic Calculator in1967."  Editorial backgrounder, Texas Instruments. 

"The Chip that Jack Built Changed the World." Editorial backgrounder, Texas Instruments.

"The Improbable Years," Electronics (February 19, 1968). 

"The middle age of the transistor." The Economist 346. (January 3, 1998)

Thornton, Stephen T., Paul M. Fishbane, and Stephen Gasiorowicz. Physics for Scientists and Engineers.  New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1992. 

Tipler, Paul.  Physics, Second Edition. 1976. Rochester, Michigan: Worth Publishers, Inc, 1987. 

Witze, Alexandra. "Sizable switch: Advent of transistor in 1947 changed course of technology." The Dallas Morning News. (December 8, 1997): 6D. 

Wolfe, Tom. "The Tinkerings of Robert Noyce: How the Sun Rose on Silicon Valley." Esquire. (December 1993): 346-374 


Anderson, Gene.  Interview.  "Transistorized!"
Bardeen, John.  Interviews by Lillian Hoddeson.  AIP.
Brattain, Robert. Interview. Transistorized!Brattain, Walter. Interview with A. N. Holden and W.J. King. January, 1964. AIP.
Brown, Walter.  Interview. "Transistorized!"
Foy, Phil.  Interview.  "Transistorized!"
Holonyak, Nick.  Interview by Frederick Nebeker.  June 22, 1993.  IEEE.
Indig, George.  Interview.  "Transistorized!"
Moore, Gordon.  Interview. "Transistorized!"
Ohl, Russell.  Interview with Lillian Hoddeson, August 1976.  AIP
---.  Interview with Frank Polkinghorn.  6 January, 1975.  IEEE.
Pearson, Gerald.  Interview by Liilian Hoddeson. August. AIP.
Pierce, John.  Interview. "Transistorized!"
Riordan, Michael. Interview.  "Transistorized!"
Ross, Ian. Interview. "Transistorized!"
Seitz, Frederick. Interview with N. Henriksen. AIP.
---.  Interview with Lillian Hoddeson, January 20,1981. AIP.
---.  Interview.  Transistorized
Sello, Harry.  Interview.   Transistorized
Shockley, William. Interview by Lillian Hoddeson. September 10. AIP.
Shurkin, Joel.  Interview.  "Transistorized!"
Sparks, Betty.  Interview. Transistorized
Sparks, Morgan.  Interview. "Transistorized!"
Torsiglieri, Arthur. Interview.  Transistorized
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