Freedom Riders arriving at Birmingham, AL bus station in 1961. Reverend Fred L. Shuttlesworth escorts Catherine Burks-Brooks, John Lewis, and other Freedom Riders.
Vivian and Nash march in Nashville
C.T. Vivian and Diane Nash lead a demonstration march to City Hall in Nashville, TN.
C.T. Vivian with National Guardsmen on bus from Birmingham, AL to Jackson, MS.
On the impact of employing nonviolence
On why Civil Rights activism increased in the 1960s.
On the Kennedys' response to the Freedom Rides
On Robert Kennedy's request for a cooling off period
Robert F. Kennedy on Montgomery Tensions
Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy (center) in his Washington, DC office in 1961 conferring with two assistants, Nicholas B. Katzenbach (left) and Herbert J. Miller (right). Kennedy urged all citizens and travelers in Alabama to refrain from actions "which will cause increased tension or provoke violence" in troubled Montgomery.
Robert F. and John F. Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the Oval office.
John Patterson, Governor of Alabama from 1958 to 1963, won election as a staunch segregationist. Patterson discusses his response to the Freedom Rides and his decision to refuse a phone call from President John F. Kennedy when the Freedom Riders encountered mob violence in Birmingham.
Democracy in Action
Prospective Freedom Riders volunteer to travel to Jackson, Mississippi.
On how the Movement liberated white Americans, too
On the ICC desegregation order
Democracy In Action
Freedom Riders came diverse backgrounds but shared common goals
The Freedom Riders represented a cross-section of America - black and white, young and old, religious and secular. "The Freedom Rides were trying to say to America: we are a diverse country - let's act like a diverse country, where every part of the diversity is equal, and is treated equally," says Freedom Rider Rabbi Israel Dresner.