Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy (center) in his Washington, DC office in 1961 conferring with two assistants, Nicholas B. Katzenbach (left) and Herbert J. Miller (right). Kennedy urged all citizens and travelers in Alabama to refrain from actions "which will cause increased tension or provoke violence" in troubled Montgomery.
Robert F. and John F. Kennedy
President John F. Kennedy and Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy in the Oval office.
On the Kennedys' response to the Freedom Rides
On Robert Kennedy's request for a cooling off period
John Patterson, Governor of Alabama from 1958 to 1963, won election as a staunch segregationist. Patterson discusses his response to the Freedom Rides and his decision to refuse a phone call from President John F. Kennedy when the Freedom Riders encountered mob violence in Birmingham.
JFK with Governor Patterson
John F. Kennedy and Alabama Governor John Patterson are surrounded by supporters at a Kennedy-Johnson rally.