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Further Reading | Interview Transcripts | Primary Sources

Books and articles used for the film.


Allen, Frederick Lewis. "The Big Change: America Transforms Itself: 1900-1950." Harper & Row, 1952.

Applebaum, Diana Karter. "The Glorious Fourth: An American Holiday, An American History." New York & Oxford: Facts On File, 1989.

Archer, William. "America To-Day: Observations and Reflections." London: William Heinemann, 1900.

Boorstin, Daniel J. "The Americans, The Democratic Experience." Vintage Books Edition, 1974.

Burns, James MacGregor. T"he Workshop of Democracy: From the Emancipation Proclamation to the Era of the New Deal." New York: Vintage Books, 1986.

Crichton, Judy. "America: 1900, The Turning Point." New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1998.

Commager, Henry Steele. "The American Mind." Yale University Press, 1950.

Degler, Carl N. "Out of Our Past: The Forces That Shaped Modern America," Third Ed. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1984.

Dubofsky, Melvyn, Athan Theoharis, and Daniel M. Smith. "The United States in the Twentieth Century." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1978.

Foner, Eric and John A. Garraty, Eds. "The Reader's Companion to American History." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1991.

Francis, Russell. "The American Heritage History of the Confident Years: 1865-1916." New York: American Heritage Publishing Co., 1969.

Gaines, Kevin. "Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics and Culture in the Twentieth Century." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Hunter, Robert. "Poverty." New York: The Macmillan Company, 1904.

Leach, William R. "Land of Desire: Merchants, Power and the Rise of a New American Culture." New York: Pantheon Books, 1993.

Lesy, Michael. "Wisconsin Death Trip." New York: Anchor Books, 1973.

Lord, Walter. "The Good Years: From 1900 to the First World War." New York: Harper & Brothers, 1960.

Morison, Samuel Eliot, Henry Steel Commager, William E. Leuchtenburg. "A Concise History of the American Republic," 2nd Ed. Oxford University Press, 1983.

The National Archives. "The American Image: Photographs from the National Archives, 1860-1960." New York: Pantheon Books, 1979.

Riis, Jacob. "The Making of an American." London: The Macmillan Co., 1904.

Schlereth Thomas J. "Victorian America: Transformations in Everyday Life, 1876-1915." New York: Harper Perennial, 1991.

Smith, Page. "The Rise of Industrial America: A People's History of the" "Post-Reconstruction Era," Volume Six. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984.

Stead, William. "The Americanization of the World: The Trend of the Twentieth Century." Horace Markley, 1902.

Sullivan, Mark. "Our Times: The United States 1900-1925, Volume I: The Turn of the Century." New York & London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926.

Trachtenberg, Alan. "The Incorporation of America, Culture and Society in the Guilded Age." New York: Hill & Wang, 1994.

Wiebe, Robert H. "The Search for Order, 1877-1920." New York: Hill and Wang, 1980.

The McKinleys and the McKinley White House

Coletta, Paolo E., Ed. "Threshold to American Imperialism: Essays on the Foreign Policies of William McKinley." New York: Exposition Press, 1970.

Hobart, Garret A. "Second Lady." Privately Printed: New York, 1933.

LaFeber, Walter. "The American Age: U.S. Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad 1750 to Present." W.W. Norton & Co., 1989.

Leech, Margaret. "In the Days of McKinley." New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.

Logan, Mrs. John A. "Thirty Years in Washington." Hartford, CT: A.D. Worthington & Co., 1901.

Morgan, H. Wayne. "William McKinley and His America." Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 1963.

Pendel, Thomas F. "Thirty-Six Years in the White House." Washington, D.C.: The Neale Publishing Company, 1902.

Porter, Robert P. "Life of William McKinley: Soldier, Lawyer, Statesman." Cleveland, OH: The N.G. Hamilton Publishing Company, 1896.

Slayden, Maury Ellen. "Washington Wife: Journal of Mary Ellen Slayden from 1897-1919." New York and Evanston: Harper & Row, 1962.

Titherington, R.H. "A Brief Outline of McKinley's Career." Munsey's Magazine, November 1901, Volume XXVI, p.170.

Whitney, David C. "The American Presidents." Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1982.


Colton, Joe and Bruchey, Stuart. "Technology, the Economy, and Society: The American Experience." New York: Columbia University Press, 1987,

Welling, William. "Photography in America: The Formative Years, 1839-1900." New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1978.

San Francisco

Altrocchi, Julia Cooley. "The Spectacular San Franciscans." New York: E.P. Dutton and Company, inc., 1949.

Benedict, Hester A. "San Francisco's First Post Office and Its Builder," Overland Monthly, June 1900.

Bronson, William. "The Earth Shook, The Sky Burned - a Moving Record of America's Great Earthquake and Fire: San Francisco, April 18, 1906." New York: Doubleday, 1959.

Hom, Marlon K. "Songs of Gold Mountain: Cantonese Rhymes from San Francisco Chinatown." Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.

McGloin, John Bernard, S.J. "San Francisco: The Story of a City." San Rafael & London: Presidio Press, 1978.

Muscatine, Doris. "Old San Francisco: The Biography of a City, from Early Days to the Earthquake." New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1975.

Watkins, T.H. and Olmsted, R.R. "Mirror of the Dream: An Illustrated History of San Francisco." San Francisco: Scrimshaw Press, 1976.

John Muir and the Environment

Fox, Stephen. T"he American Conservation Movement: John Muir and His Legacy. "Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1981.

Muir John. "Our National Parks." San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1991.

Wolfe, Linnie Marsh. "Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945.

The Philippines

Bain, David Howard. "Sitting in Darkness: Americans in the Philippines." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984.

Coletta, Paolo E., Ed. "Threshold to American Imperialism: Essays on the Foreign Policies of William McKinley." New York: Exposition Press, 1970.

Karnow, Stanley. "In Our Image: America's Empire in the Philippines." New York: Random House, 1989.

LaFeber, Walter. "The American Age: U.S. Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad 1750 to Present." W.W. Norton & Co., 1989.

Miller, Stuart Creighton. "Benevolent Assimilation: The American Conquest of the Philippines." Yale University Press, 1982.

Severo, Richard and Milford, Lewis. "The Wages of War: When American Soldiers Came Home--From Valley Forge to Vietnam." New York: Simon & Schuster 1989.

Wall, Joseph Frazier. "Andrew Carnegie." Pittsburg: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1989.

Frances Benjamin Johnston and Women

Daniel, Pete and Raymond Smock. "A Talent for Detail: the Photographs of Miss Frances Benjamin Johnston, 1889-1910." New York: Harmony Books, 1974.

Evans, Sara M. "Born for Liberty: A History of Women in America." New York: The Free Press, 1989.

Franck, Irene and Brownstone, David. "Women's World: A Timeline of Women in History." New York: HarperPerennial, 1994.

Gordon, Linda. "Woman's Body, Woman's Right: A Social History of Birth Control in America." New York: Grossman, 1976.

Johnston, Frances Benjamin. "The Hampton Album." New York: Doubleday Inc., 1966.

Peiss, Kathy. "Cheap Amusements: Working Women and Leisure in the Turn-of-the-Century New York." Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1986.

Van Vorst, Marie. "The Woman that Toils: Experiences of a Literary Woman as a Working Girl." Everybody's Magazine, October 1902.

Wexler, Laura. "Black and White and Color: American Photographs at the Turn of the Century." Prospects, Vol. XII, Winter 1988.

Agriculture and Rural Life

Calkins, Earnest Elmo. "They Broke the Prairie." Charles Scribner's Sons, 1937.

Hurt, Douglas. "Agriculture: A Brief History." Ames, Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1994.

Katzman, David M. and William R. Tuttle, Jr., Eds. "Plain Folk: The Life Stories of Undistinguished Americans." Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1982.

Lingeman, Richard." Small Town America: A Narrative History: 1620-The Present." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1980.

Rasumussen, Wayne D., ed. "Agriculture in the United States: A Documentary History." New York: Random House, 1975.

New York City

Byron, Joseph. " New York Life at the Turn of the Century in Photographs." New York: Dover Publications, 1985.

Jackson, Kenneth T. "The Encyclopedia of New York." New Haven & London: Yale University Press, 1995.

Morris, Lloyd. "Incredible New York: High Life and Low Life of the Last Hundred Years." New York: Random House, 1951.

Parsons, Wm. Barclay. "Rapid Transit in New York." Scribner's Magazine, May 1900.

Vaudeville and Entertainment

Brockett, Oscar G. "History of the Theatre," 4th Ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, Inc., 1982.

Carlton, Donna. "Looking for Little Egypt." Bloomington, Indiana: IDD Books, 1994.

Dardis, Tom. "Keaton: The Man Who Wouldn't Lie Down." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1979.

Fields, W.C. "W.C. Fields by Himself: His Intended Biography." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1973

Gehring, Wes D. "W.C. Fields: A Bio-Bibliography." Westport, Ct. and London: Greenwood Press, 1984.

Henderson, Mary. "The City and the Theatre: New York Playhouses from Bowling Green to Times Square." Clifton, NJ: J.T. White, 1973.

Laurie, Joe Jr. "Vaudeville: From the Honky-Tonks to the Palace." New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1953.

Nasaw, David. "Going Out: The Rise and Fall of Public Amusement." New York: Basic Books, 1993.

Rapf, Joanna E. and Green, Gary L. "Buster Keaton: A Bio-Bibliography." Westport, CT. & London: Greenwood Press, 1995.

Robinson, David. "Buster Keaton." London: Secker & Warburg, 1969.

Slide, Anthony. "The Vaudevillians: A Dictionary of Vaudeville Performers." Westport, CT: Arlington House, 1981.

Snyder, Robert W. "The Voice of the City: Vaudeville and Popuarl Culture in New York." New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Taylor, Robert Lewis. "W.C. Fields: His Follies and Fortunes." New York:

Garden City, 1949.


Bodnar, John E. "The Transplanted: A History of Immigrants in Urban America." Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1985.

Coolidge, Mary Roberts. "Chinese Immigration." New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1909.

Riis, Jacob. "How the Other Half Lives." New York: Dover Publications, originally published in 1890.

Puntila, L.A. David Miller, Trans. "The Political History of Finland: 1809-1966." London: Heinemann, 1975.

Wolfe, Linnie Marsh. "Son of the Wilderness: The Life of John Muir." New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1945.

The Scofield Disaster

Dilley, J.W. "History of the The Scofield Mine Disaster." Provo, Utah: The Skelton Pub Co., 1900.

Powell, Allan Kent. "The Next Time We Strike: Labor in Utah's Coal Fields, 1900-1933." Logan, Utah: Utah State University Press, 1985.

Powell, Allan Kent. "Utah History Encyclopedia." Salt Lake City: University of Utah Press, 1994.

Powell, Allan Kent. "Tragedy at Scofield" The Utah Historical Society, Volume 41, Number 2, Spring 1973.

Pulkkinen, Marjatt. Haronoja, Terttu M., Trans. "The First of May 1900 in Utah." Keskipohjanmaa, May 1, 1988.

Puntila, L.A. David Miller, Trans. "The Political History of Finland: 1809-1966." London: Heinemann, 1975.

Taniguchi, Nancy J. "Markets, Rails, and Regulations: One Hundred Years of Utah Coal." Making Money Out of Dirt: Papers of the Utah Mining Symposium, 1987.

Thomas, Gomer. "Report of the State Coal Mine Inspector for 1900." Salt Lake City, UT: Office of the Mine Inspector for the State of Utah, 1900.

Wallace, Robert, Ed. "The Miners." New York: Time Life Books, 1976.

William Jennings Bryan, Theodore Roosevelt, and the 1900 Presidential Election

Coletta, Paolo E. "William Jennings Bryan." Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1969.

Cutright, Paul Russel. "Theodore Roosevelt: the Making of a Conservationist." Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1980

Glad, Paul W. "The Trumpet Soundeth: William Jennings Bryan and His Democracy, 1896-1912." University of Nebraska Press, 1960.

Hart, Albert Bushnell and Herbert Ronald Ferleger, Eds. "Theodore Roosevelt Encyclopedia." Westport CT. & London: Meckler, 1989.

Lorant, Stefan. "The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt." Garden City, New York: Double Day & Company, Inc., 1959.

Miller, Nathan. "Theodore Roosevelt: A Life." New York: Quill, William Morrow, 1992.

Morris, Edmund. "The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt." New York: Ballantine Books, 1979.

Pringle, Henry F. "Theodore Roosevelt." Harcourt Brace Jovanovitch, 1956.

Roosevelt, Theodore. "The Letters of Theodore Roosevelt," selected and edited by Elting E. Morison. Harvard University Press, 1951.

Townsend, Edward W. "The National Republican Convention." Harper's Weekly, June 30, 1900, Vol. XLIV, No. 2271, p.594.

White, William Allen. "The Autobiography of William Allen White." Lawrence: University of Kansas, 1990.

The Prices and the Boxer Rebellion

Cohen, Paul A. "History in Three Keys: The Boxers as Event, Experience, and Myth." New York: Columbia University Press, 1997.

Coletta, Paolo E., Ed. "Threshold to American Imperialism: Essays on the Foreign Policies of William McKinley." New York: Exposition Press, 1970.

Edwards, E.H. "Fire and Sword in Shansi: The Story of the Martyrdom of Foreigners and Chinese Christians." New York: Arno Press & The New York Times, 1970.

Fleming, Peter. "The Siege at Peking." New York: Harper & Brothers, 1959.

Giles, Lancelot. "The Siege of the Peking Legations: A Diary." Nedlands, Western Australia: University of Western Australia Press, 1970.

Hirschfeld, Burt. "Fifty-Five Days of Terror: The Story of the Boxer Rebellion." Folkestone, Great Britain: Bailey Brothers & Swinfen Ltd., 1971.

Keown-Boyd, Henry. T"he Fists of Righteous Harmony: A History of the Boxer Uprising in China in the Year 1900." London, Leo Cooper, 1991.

LaFeber, Walter. "The American Age: U.S. Foreign Policy at Home and Abroad 1750 to Present." W.W. Norton & Co., 1989.

Martin, Christopher. "The Boxer Rebellion." London, New York, Toronto: Abelard-Schuman, 1968.

Nicholas, Bob. "Blue Jackets & Boxers." Boston: Allen & Unwin, 1986.

Price, Eva Jane. "China Journal, 1889-1900: An American Missionary Family During the Boxer Rebellion." New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1989.

Spence, Jonathan D. "The Search for Modern China." New York & London: W.W. Norton & Comapany, 1990.

Steel, Richard. "Through the Peking Sewer Gate: Relief of the Boxer Siege, 1900, 1901." New York: Vantage Press, 1985.

Tan, Chester C. "The Boxer Catastrophe." New York: Octagon Books, 1983.

Scott Joplin and Music

Berlin, Edward A. "King of Ragtime: Scott Joplin and His Era." New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994.

Haskins, James, with Kathleen Benson. "Scott Joplin." Garden City, NY: Doubleday & Company, Inc., 1978.

Hasse, John Edward, Ed. "Ragtime: It's History, Composers, and Music." New York: Schirmer Books, 1985.

Booker T. Washington, W.E.B. Du Bois, George White, and African Americans

Ayers, Edward L. "The Promise of the New South: Life After Reconstruction." New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.

Clayton, Edward T. "The Negro Politician: His Success and Failure." Chicago: Jackson Publishing Company, Inc., 1964.

Cohen, William. "At Freedom's Edge: Black Mobility and the Southern White Quest for Racial Control, 1861-1915." Baton Rouge & London: Louisiana State University Press, 1991.

Du Bois, W.E.B. "The Souls of Black Folk." New York: Vintage Books, 1990.

Du Bois, W.E.B. "The Autobiography of W.E.B. Du Bois: A Soliloquy on Viewing My Life from the Last Decade of Its First Century." International Publishers. 1968.

Francis, Wayne. "Lift Every Voice and Sing." Crisis, Volume 22, September 1926.

Franklin, John Hope, Ed. "Three Negro Classics: Up From Slavery/Booker T. Washington. The Souls of Black Folk/ William E. B. Du Bois. The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man/James Weldon Johnson." New York: Avon Books, 1965.

Gaines, Kevin. "Uplifting the Race: Black Leadership, Politics and Culture in the Twentieth Century." Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1996.

Harlan, Louis R. "Booker T. Washington: The Making of a Black Leader, 1856-1901." New York: Oxford Univeristy Press, 1972.

Harlan, Lewis R. "Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901-1915." New York & Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1983.

Johnston, Frances Benjamin. "The Hampton Album." New York: Doubleday Inc., 1966.

Lewis, David Levering. "W.E.B. DuBois: Biography of a Race, 1868-1919." New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1993.

Reid, George Willis. "A Biography of George H. White, 1852-1918." Ann Aror, MI: UMI Dissertation Services, 1975.

The Galveston Storm

Cline, Isaac. "Storms, Floods and Sunshine." Louisiana: Pelican Publishing Company, 1945.

Halstead, Murat. "Galveston: the Horrors of a Stricken City." American Publisher's Association, 1900.

Harrowing, Frank Thomas. "The Galveston Storm of 1900: Thesis." Houston, TX, 1950.

Moore, Willis L. "Hurricanes and Storms." Collier's Weekly, October 6, 1900, V.27, p.7.

Ousley, Clarence. "Galveston in Nineteen Hundred." Atlanta, Georgia: William C. Chase, 1900.

Scharnweber, William A., Ed. "Facts About Galveston Texas: The Deep Water Harbor of the Gulf of Mexico." Galveston: A.A. Finck, 1899.

"The True Story of the Galveston Flood as Told by Survivors." Philadelphia: American Book and Bible House, 1900.

The Anthracite Strike

Bartoletti, Susan Campbell. "Growing Up in Coal Country." Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1996.

Cornell, Robert. "The Anthracite Coal Strike of 1902." Washington D.C.: Catholic University Press, 1957.

Gluck, Elsie. "John Mitchell, Miner: Labor's Bargain with the Gilded Age." New York: The John Day Company, 1929.

Greene, Homer." Coal and the Coal Mines." Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin & Co., 1896.

Long Priscilla. "Where the Sun Never Shines: A History of America's Bloody Coal Industry." New York: Paragon House, 1989.

McGee, W. J. "The Lessons of Galveston." The National Geographic Magazine, October 1900, Vol. XI, No. 10, p.28.

Miller, Donald L., and Richard E. Sharpless. "The Kingdom of Coal: Work, Enterprise, and Ethnic Communities in the Mine Fields." Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1985.

Mitchell, John. "The Great Coal Strike." Independent, November 1, 1900.

Phelan, Craig. "Divided Loyalties: The Private and Public Life of Labor Leader John Mitchell." Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 1994.

Steel, Edward M., Ed. "The Speeches and Writings of Mother Jones." Pittsburgh: The University of Pittsburgh Press, 1988.

Ward, Leo L. and Mark T. Major. "Images of America: Pottsville." Dover, NH: Arcadia Publishing, 1995.

Leon Czolgosz and Anarchism

Johns, Wesley A. "The Man Who Shot McKinley." South Brunswick and New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1970.

Joll, James. "The Anarchists." Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1980.

Sonn, Richard D. "Anarchism." New York: Twayne Publishers, 1992.

Books and articles used for the Web site

Bergh, Nancy, "The Live Model Illustrated Song American Style," The New Magic Lantern Journal, Volume 2, Number 3, January, 1983.

Berger, Michael L. "The Devil in God's Country: The Automobile and Social Change in Rural America, 1893-1929." Hamden, CT: Archon Books, 1979.

Burns, James MacGregor "The Workshop of Democracy." New York: Alfred A Knopf, 1985.

Carruth, Gordon. "The Encyclopedia of World Facts and Dates." New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1993.

Crichton, Judy. "America: 1900, The Turning Point." New York: Henry Holt and Company, Inc., 1998.

Delpar, Helen, Ed. "Encyclopedia of Latin America." McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1974.

Fetterley, Judith and Marjorie Pryse "American Women Regionalists: 1850-1910-A Norton Anthology." New York and London: W.W. Norton & Company, 1992.

Grant, Neil. "Chronicle of 20th Century Conflict." New York: Smithmark Publishers, 1993.

Lewis, David L. and Laurence Goldstein, Ed. "The Automobile and American Culture." Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan Press, 1980.

Meier, Peg. "Song Slides." Star Tribune First Sunday, April 4, 1993.

Pettifer, Julian and Nigel Turner. "Automania: Man and the Motor Car." London: William Collins Sons and Co. LTD, 1984.

Ripley, John W. "All Join in the Chorus." American Heritage, Volume X, Number 4, July 1959.

Tompkins, Vincent. "American Decades: 1900-1909." New York: Gale Research, Inc. 1996.

Trager, James. "The People's Chronology." New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1994.

Sullivan, Mark. "Our Times: The Turn of the Century." New York & London: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1926.

Wagenknecht, Edward. "American Profile 1900-1909." Amherst, MA: The University of Massachusetts Press, 1982.

"The Random House Encyclopedia." Random House, New York, 1990.

"The Encyclopedia Americana." International Edition, Grolier Incorporated, 1998.

"The New York Public Library American History Desk Reference." The Stonesong Press Incorporated and The New York Public Library, MacMillan, New York, 1998.

Books and articles referenced in the Teacher's Guide

Adamson, Lynda G. "Recreating the Past: A Guide to American and World Historical Fiction for Children and Young Adults." Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1994.

Brown, Dee. "Burn My Heart at Wounded Knee: An Indian History of the American West." New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston, 1971.

Doctorow, E.L. "Ragtime." New York: random House, 1975.

Freedman, Russell. "Kids at Work: Lewis Hine and the Crusade Against Child Labor." New York: Clarion Books, 1994.

Marti, Jose. "Simple Verses." Houston; Arte Publico Press, 1997.

Interview Transcripts | Primary Sources | Bibliography

Program Description | Enhanced Transcript | Reference

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