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Introduction | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV


A Great Civilized Power (50 minutes)

NARRATOR:
In Washington the last summer of the 19th century began quietly.
Tourists moved through the city, guidebooks in hand, wandering from one government building to the next. Washington was more like a small town than the capitol of a great nation... so informal that one government bureaucrat kept a hen by his desk.

In June, President McKinley was meeting with advisors organizing the Republican Convention. The Democrats were already denouncing, the war in the Philippines, and McKinley was worried. In 1900, it was beneath the dignity of the president to campaign. McKinley would need a strong running mate to take his case for an American Empire to the American people.

On June 19, at the Republican Party Convention in Philadelphia, he found him. As the Governor of New York stepped forward to second McKinley's nomination, the delegates went wild. "He was all that the idolizing thousands wanted," one reporter noted "direct, dashing, fearless, possibly a little careless...and everything he was, the people liked him for."

JOHN MILTON COOPER, JR.:
Theodore Roosevelt is literally the rising star of American politics in 1900. He's gone within the space of a little over a year, from obscurity to being, one of the most famous people in America. He's a war hero. He's the war hero, the single greatest war hero to come out of the Spanish-American War. He becomes the man of the hour.

NARRATOR:
Roosevelt's charge up San Juan Hill had captured the imagination of the country. One Kansas newspaperman wrote Theodore Roosevelt: "is the coming American of the twentieth Century." When Roosevelt won his party's nomination for vice-president, McKinley had the running mate he needed.

But as the delegates cheered, a crisis was brewing half-way around the world that would test McKinley's resolve to make the United States a world power and challenge his hopes for re-election.

LETTER:
Dear Loved Ones,
Did you hear of the trouble the Christians are having in the two provinces just East of us? There is a native secret society called the Boxers , who say they are going to overthrow the Protestant religion in China. Just how far they will be allowed to persecute missionaries and their converts is not easy to say. With love to you all, Eva.

NARRATOR:
Eva Price was a missionary from Des Moines, Iowa, one of thousands of Americans about to be swept up in a brutal war that would rivet the attention of the country all through that summer.

WALTER LAFEBER:
One of the great ironies about 1900 is that the United States appears as one of the great world powers at the very moment that the world is exploding into revolution.

NARRATOR:
Eva had arrived in China 11 years before to find an angry, frustrated people, their country carved up by hostile, foreign powers bent on exploiting its vast markets.

WALTER LAFEBER:
By 1900, China is looked at as a nation that can not defend itself. China would be described as a "bone among the dogs... The dogs are, of course, the imperial powers. And the United States is one of the dogs competing for the bone." China is seen as a great prize, as a bottomless market for both industrial exports and for missionaries.

NARRATOR:
In 1900, thousands of missionaries, inspired by the evangelical fervor sweeping American universities, were spreading the Gospel in Asia. "China is open to the gospel now," missionary leaders said. "It may not be so when she becomes strong enough to dictate her treaties."

Eva and her husband Charles had sacrificed a comfortable life in America to live in an isolated province in China with their 7-year-old daughter Florence.

VIRGINIA PHIPPS:
Eva was a very home-loving person. She had her family here. She loved them dearly, and it was very hard for her to leave... She longed for letters from home and from her loved ones. She was very lonesome. But they wanted to do something for the betterment of the world and to, ah, spread Christianity was their way.

NARRATOR:
Eva and Charles ran a school, nursed the old, and the sick, taught the Bible. Eager to record the exotic world around her, Eva brought along a camera. Like most Americans, she saw the Chinese as a backward people, mired in superstition and magic, worshiping idols, waiting for the blessings of conversion. The Chinese saw Eva as a barbarian, corrupting their ancient culture and religion. "The missionaries destroy the gods we worship," protested the Chinese. "They revile our ethics, ignore reason. Their aim is to engulf the country."

LUCILLE WILSON:
The Chinese couldn't figure out why the missionaries were coming into their land. Their main word for them was foreign devils. And that's what they called them--foreign devils. With hatred of outsiders growing, a mysterious sect began roaming the countryside, burning churches, and killing missionaries. They were called the Boxers. Their rallying cry--"Exterminate the foreigner." Their prime target--the missionaries.

WALTER LAFEBER:
It is not surprising that the Boxers would target the missionaries. Once American missionaries were able to get into interior provinces of China, it opened these provinces up to American business people, and consequently American diplomatic officials on the scene nicely call the American missionaries the pioneers for American trade and business, because once they opened up an area, then the other Americans could come along behind and sell goods. The Chinese did not miss this.

NARRATOR:
By the summer of 1900, the Boxer uprising had spread to the province where the Prices lived and worked.

LETTER:
Dear Home Folks,
We are all well and as happy as circumstances will allow, putting our trust in Him for whose sake we are here. Florence has quite a curiosity to see the "Boxers" but I hope she'll not get a chance. Love to you all, Eva


NARRATOR:
All summer, the new, fast trans-Atlantic steamers were fully booked, and had been for months. 75 thousand Americans were sailing for France--teachers from Ohio, meatpackers from Kansas City, firemen from Chicago, all bound for the 1900 Paris Exposition. Over fifty-seven million people came that year to see thousands of exhibits from every corner of the globe.

DAVID NASAW:
The world's fairs were a showplace for the wonders of the present and the wonders of the future, a place for every country, every product, every nationality, every ethnic group to show off. And you got a sense that the world was a bit smaller, and America was very much a part of it.

NARRATOR:
American businessmen found the Exposition a glorious opportunity to hawk everything from linotype machines to processed meats. "The Americanization of the World," an English writer noted, is well under way." The Paris Exposition was a tribute to technology and progress. Visitors marveled at moving sidewalks, wireless telegraphy, the most powerful telescope ever built, and the first escalator anyone had ever seen. At night, the city was ablaze. An electrical search light was said to be "like the finger of some Sun God."

JOHN M. STAUDENMAIER, S.J.:
The conscious intent of the people designing the world's fairs is clearly... to teach people that progress works. So the Hall of Electricity, the electric light displays are terrific things, fountains with different colored lights in them, dazzling stuff. Call them wonderments, the sorts of things where you just walk around shaking your head and say, "What will they think of next?" You also have scenes of colonial superiority... from India and from Africa and places like this that are steeped in a kind of white man's superiority, racist sort of a thing that say, "Come here and you will really see what progress is doing," because you will see the counterpoint to progress, which is backward, savage, uncivilized, interesting, salacious, stuff."

DAVID NASAW:
Each world's fair catalogued in hierarchical rank peoples of the world
and the white folk were always at the top and the people of color, far at the bottom. People from the Philippines or from Africa were displayed as examples of the brutish savagery that highlighted the essential goodness, by contrast, of white Americans and white Europeans.

NARRATOR:
In 1900, the belief that people of color were inferior to white people was as widespread in the United States as any place in the world. Popular songs, theater, vaudeville all portrayed African Americans as ignorant, foolish, and child-like.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
American culture was so racist, and thought of African Americans as inferior, as a matter of course. We were depicted as buffoons, oftentimes eating watermelon, with huge red lips and large eyes. And they essentially made African Americans ridiculous. This kind of racism was kind of a paternalism. Yes, these people are inferior, they will never be as great as we are, but we can help them.

NARRATOR:
Although many black Americans were doctors, ministers, teachers, writers, most found themselves trapped in a hostile world. 9 out of 10 still lived in the South where they were denied the freedoms that other Americans took for granted--even the right to vote.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
By 1900, we had no rights. We were not treated like second-class citizens, we were treated as non-citizens.

NARRATOR:
After the Civil War, African Americans had voted, sent representatives to Congress, served as sheriffs, justices of the peace, and sat alongside whites on juries, school boards and city councils.

But by 1900, all that had come to an end. Through poll taxes, literacy tests, and dozens of other schemes, Southern whites had stripped African Americans of their most basic rights as citizens.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
By 1900 the South was what we call Jim Crowed. That meant that it was segregated. We were not going to be seated next to whites. We couldn't use the same facilities as whites.

NARRATOR:
And to make sure that African Americans did not attempt to assert themselves in any way, the white South resorted to terrorism.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
The last 16 years of the 19th century, there were 2500 lynchings in the South. And the majority of them were African Americans. And that terrorism reached an intensity in 1900.

NARRATOR:
Early that year, Representative George White of North Carolina had put a bill before Congress to make lynching a federal crime. Not long before, there had been 22 black Congressmen in Washington. Now, in both the House and Senate, George White was the only one who remained. "To cheapen Negro life," he said, "is to cheapen all life. The first murder paves the way for the second until crime ceases to be abhorrent."

NARRATOR:
There had been 107 reported lynchings in 1899, White told the House. His bill was designed to stop the killing.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
George White's anti-lynching bill really didn't have a chance... a bill by the last remaining African American Congressman was not going to get anywhere... whites in Congress, many of them from the South said, we need to keep the vicious, brutal African American males in line to keep them from attacking the flower of white womanhood.

NARRATOR:
With terror and oppression part of daily life, America's 9 million blacks looked to one man more than any other for leadership. Booker T. Washington was just finishing his autobiography, "Up From Slavery," which would inspire generations of black Americans.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
Washington had worked his way from being a slave to being a coal miner as a little boy, to working for a wealthy white woman, to setting up this school in Tuskegee.

NARRATOR:
Back in 1881, Washington had founded Tuskegee Institute, dedicated to teaching black Americans practical skills. "Our knowledge," he said, "must be harnessed to the real things in life."

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
He was advocating for African Americans to be carpenters, to be bricklayers, to be seamstresses... to create black businesses and to become a self-reliant people. Booker T. Washington was an accommodationist. And his program was to accommodate the social and political situation of the South. Washington felt that if you don't have economic power, then you're going to the white man empty-handed.

NARRATOR:
Black progress, Washington said, "must be laid on love of work, economy, ownership of property, bank accounts." But in 1900, a new black leader was emerging, unwilling to compromise with white America. W.E.B. Du Bois believed that without political power African Americans would never achieve equality.

MARGARET WASHINGTON:
Du Bois did not feel that you could accommodate injustice. He felt that if you didn't demand your rights as other citizens, you were really selling your people short.

NARRATOR:
Du Bois never intended to be an activist. He wanted to be a scholar. Born free in a small New England town, he had studied Greek and Latin as a boy, and became the first black to receive a Ph.D. from Harvard. By the spring of 1899, Du Bois was a 31 year old professor of sociology at Atlanta University. He believed he could fight bigotry and hatred with reason and scholarship.

DAVID LEWIS:
Du Bois believed in the power of social science to transform the society. He kept saying, "Americans are thinking wrong about race because they don't know."

NARRATOR:
But then Du Bois witnessed a crime so vicious that it convinced him that writing alone was not enough to overcome the prejudice of white Americans.

In Atlanta, in April, 1899, Sam Hose, an African American, was lynched, burned, then brutally dismembered, and put on display in a downtown store window.

DAVID LEWIS:
And Du Bois passed the storefront in which the dismembered parts of Mr. Hose were on display, he stopped, riveted to the spot and went back to campus, and decided that social science wouldn't transform society, that politics would. Du Bois becomes convinced that the cure for society's ills was not to tell people the truth, but to convince them to act upon that truth.

NARRATOR:
Du Bois would soon break openly with Booker T. Washington: "Mr. Washington," Du Bois would write "asks black people to give up political power, civil rights, higher education of Negro youth. But Negroes must insist that voting is necessary for modern manhood, that discrimination is barbarism, that black boys need education as well as white boys." The problem of race, he said in 1900, would be the problem for the 20th century.

NARRATOR:
All through the spring and early summer, Americans were reading that the Boxer Rebellion had spread... more churches had been destroyed, more missionaries, killed. "We have heard," Eva Price wrote "that the Boxers are in our own city... We have learned what it is to have the feeling that we were facing death itself." 300 miles North of the Prices, in Peking, the capital of China. The compound where hundreds of foreign diplomats lived had come under siege. Among those trapped inside were Americans and their families--surrounded by more than 20,000 angry Chinese.

"They advanced in a solemn mass," wrote one hostage. "Their yells were deafening, while the roar of gongs, drums, and horns sounded like thunder."

WALTER LAFEBER:
And everyone understands that if this siege succeeds, that they are probably going to massacre all of the foreigners that they can get their hands on.

NARRATOR:
On June 13, the Boxers cut the telegraph lines connecting the foreign compound with the rest of the world. With American soldiers already dying in an unpopular war in the Philippines, McKinley was being forced once again to take action on the other side of the globe.

WALTER LAFEBER:
McKinley has to make an historic decision. And the decision is whether or not to send US troops out of Manila and onto the mainland of Asia. And what McKinley does is not only order the troops onto the Asian mainland to fight on, in China, but he does it without consulting anyone. He essentially goes to war without asking Congress anything about it. And it becomes a very important historic precedent, that later American presidents will use to order American troops around the world.

NARRATOR:
By the end of June, 2,500 American soldiers had left Manila to join an international army. Their mission--to put an end to the Boxer Rebellion and liberate the hostages. Far from Peking, the Prices faced increasing danger. "We're living in a suspense that cannot be imagined," Eva wrote. "We live moment by moment."

NARRATOR:
A killer heat wave hit America that summer, holding most of the nation in its grip. From Portland, Maine to the Great Lakes, summer meant escaping to the shore--if only for a day. As never before, vacations were becoming a part of American life. The wealthy spent their summers in exclusive enclaves. In 1900, there were 4,000 millionaires, and with no income tax, a million dollars went a long way. The rich idled their summers away--living much as kings would, if kings had the money.

JEAN STROUSE:
By 1900, the great American fortunes far surpassed the fortunes of the leading dukes and lords and royal heads of Europe. In the summers, these people went to Newport, to Southampton, to Maine. And they built fabulous, luxurious chateaux, especially in Newport. That was the fashionable colony.

NARRATOR:
There were ornate palaces with over a hundred rooms, called cottages, and competitions to see who could hold the most outrageous party. One host invited his guests to bring their horses to a sit-down dinner.

JEAN STROUSE:
People gave elaborate costume balls; in which, at one of them, there were something like 14 people who came as Louis XVI. There were lots of Napoleons and a few Marie Antoinettes.

NARRATOR:
In small towns that summer, there were picnics, sports, fireworks, and the music of John Philip Sousa.


MAX MORATH:
John Philip Sousa was everywhere in 1900 and band music was everywhere... there weren't too many middle-class people in America listening to Beethoven, because how could they? They were no recordings, yet. They couldn't go to the concert halls. The philharmonic was not accessible. Band music on tour, the concert in the park, was cookin' in 1900.... John Philip Sousa was the Arthur Fiedler of his time. But people loved it, he didn't have any strings, he didn't have any violins. He couldn't do a lot of things. He didn't have any pianists. He had bands. Horns. I mean you had to be heard across the park.

NARRATOR:
Sousa was king, but in 1900, outdoor band concerts had a new kind of competition. Americans everywhere were listening to records, buying sheet music and pianos, and singing the same songs. The music industry had just been born. Songs had become commodities.

MAX MORATH:
It was possible to publish a tune in New York on Friday and have copies of it in San Francisco next week, not to mention Des Moines and everywhere in between...The five and ten. That's where the music was merchandised... Rural free deliver, RFD, kicked in in 1897. So the farmers could get some music... Here was finally a business. An industry. There's money to be made and out of the woodwork come all of these young dudes saying, "Hey, man, let's go into the music business!" "I don't know anything about it." "Never mind. we can sell sheet music. They sold a million copies in Chicago last week. Let's go."

NARRATOR:
In 1900, a new hit was flying off the racks of five and dime stores all across the country--"The Maple Leaf Rag" by Scott Joplin.

MAX MORATH:
Eighteen-ninety-nine, late in the year, Scott Joplin's first successful rag "The Maple Leaf Rag" is published out in Sedalia, Missouri. In 1900, it snowballed, it sold and sold and sold and it's probably the best selling rag of all time.

NARRATOR:
Joplin had learned classical music from his father, a former slave, who was an accomplished violinist, and the syncopated style of plantation songs and dances from his mother, who played the banjo and sang in church choirs.

MAX MORATH:
Ragtime is not an unsophisticated music... Rhythmically it's complex, the left hand keeps a constant beat, the right hand is constantly going off that beat. And when it does that continuously, it creates an elation. I can't explain why that is, but in the hands of someone that knows how to do it, it's exciting.

NARRATOR:
In 1900, Joplin was 32 years old, and had spent most of his life traveling around the Midwest, making music with other African American musicians--the musicians who invented ragtime.

MAX MORATH:
In 1900, you have these very talented young black musicians who are now absorbing all of the music that's around them... they heard French quadrilles, they heard Baptist hymns, plus they heard the European masters. They heard Chopin, they heard Mendelssohn.

NARRATOR:
But because it came from the black world...the whole thing was considered... as gross, an intrusion, bad. "This invasion of vulgarity in music [is] a national calamity," wrote one critic. "This plague is upon us... like an epidemic of cholera... The people have sold themselves body and soul to the musical satan... alas, this is what sells."

MAX MORATH:
It's going to take some time for the pianists, not to mention the ears of Americans, to say, "What is that? Wow, I like that. What are they playing, Harriet? I mean it's exciting. What do they call that? Oh, they call it rag time."

NARRATOR:
In China, the crisis grew more ominous as the siege in Peking continued. Inside the foreign compound, 480 men were holding off 20,000 Chinese with just 5 cannons. 7 Americans had been killed, many more wounded. Supplies were dwindling. The diplomats and their families were surviving on rice and the meat from slaughtered horses. American consul Edwin Conger , managed to smuggle out one last desperate message: "Quick relief only can prevent general massacre."

But American soldiers were still many miles from Peking, fighting their way through the countryside alongside Welsh Fussiliers, Bengal Lancers, Punjabis, Sikhs, Russians, Japanese, French, Italians.

WALTER LAFEBER:
The United States had never sent a military force outside the Western Hemisphere until 1898. Suddenly in 1900, we have 5,000 American troops on the mainland of Asia, fighting in league with the European powers. This was something that was unimaginable two years before.

NARRATOR:
"If only soldiers would come into our province," Eva Price wrote home, "we would probably be saved. We have so longed and prayed they may come in time."

VIRGINIA PHIPPS:
they were virtually trapped because they were in the interior and there really was almost no way out. And all they could hope for really was that the allied soldiers would come soon.


NARRATOR:
On July 5, Theodore Roosevelt, campaigning in the Midwest, defended McKinley's decision to send troops to China. America's new role as a world power demanded it, he said. As for the war in the Philippines we should hold on to that island nation at any cost. "I am for expansion every time," Roosevelt told the crowds. "I do not want this flag to come down where our men have fought and shed their blood for it."

That same day, from his home in Lincoln, Nebraska, William Jennings Bryan, the Democratic candidate for president, challenged the Republican party's vision of a more militant America. 4 years before, Bryan, had also won the nomination, and gone down to defeat calling McKinley a pawn of big business. Now he labeled the president an imperialist. "Imperialism," Bryan told reporters, "is the most dangerous of the evils now menacing our country."

WALTER LAFEBER:
This was a time which the Philippine insurrection was going badly. This was the time when the Boxers were besieging the foreign compound and we did not know whether or not they were going to massacre all of the foreigners in China and it looked as though, ah, McKinley's foreign policies were in shambles.

NARRATOR:
All summer, Bryan drew huge crowds across the country as he lashed out at the president for trampling the rights of the people of Asia. "We dare not educate the Filipinos," Bryan said, "lest they learn to read the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States."

WALTER LAFEBER:
Bryan believes that American foreign policy is immoral and that the United States has no business fighting these kinds of wars. He believes that what McKinley has done has not only corrupted American society, but has corrupted the American Constitution.

NARRATOR:
While McKinley managed his campaign from behind the scenes in Canton, Ohio, Roosevelt answered Bryan's charges.

WALTER LAFEBER:
Theodore Roosevelt was the best possible spokesman McKinley could have found to make the imperialist case in 1900. He was "the" symbol of American imperialism - the Rough Rider of the War of the 1898, the person who had written more about the glories of American expansionism than probably any other person at that time.

NARRATOR:
"Every expansion of a great civilized power," Roosevelt wrote, "means a victory for law, order, and righteousness."


WALTER LAFEBER:
The Democrats attacked the Republicans on the grounds that they were using force to impose American society on other races in the Philippines and in China. Roosevelt thought this was absurd. Roosevelt pointed out that this is exactly what we had done with the Indians and he hadn't known too many Democrats who really objected to this. And, as he said at one point, "If we are going to turn the Philippines back to the Filipinos, then we should turn Arizona back to the Apaches."


NARRATOR:
As the summer wore on, Americans waited anxiously for news from Peking. The siege was now in its second month. Then, on August 13, after more than a month of fierce fighting, the international army at last reached the Chinese capital to be met by the sickening stench of unburied dead. The Chinese had dug trenches around the city wall and controlled all the gates. The next morning, the international forces attacked. They stormed the walls, broke through the gates, and routed the Chinese. After fifty-five days of fear and waiting, the siege of the foreign compound was lifted--the hostages freed. That same day, 300 miles to the South, Eva and Charles Price prepared to leave with their daughter Florence.

VIRGINIA PHIPPS:
They received word that 20 soldiers were coming to escort them to Peking. They were very leery. They were frightened. But they had no choice.

NARRATOR:
2 weeks before, Eva had written her final letter:

Dear Home Folks,
During the past 6 weeks, we have lived from day to day expecting it to be our last on earth. 33 of our friends were beheaded. Among them were 12 children and two pregnant women.

May God increase our faith and trust, our peace and willingness to do his will.
with a heartful of love to you all, from us three
Charles, Eva, and Florence

NARRATOR:
On the morning of the 15th, the Chinese soldiers brought a wagon to the compound and ordered the Prices to get in.

LUCILLE WILSON:
Before they left that day she hugged Florence. And Florence did not exactly what was ahead. And when Florence left the room,
Aunt Eva got down on her knees and prayed that if it was going to happen, that Florence would be taken first before she would be taken. And they were loaded in the wagon. It was a beautiful morning, such a beautiful morning that they sang going part of the way... They left the compound because they were assured that they would be given security. And they were tricked.

NARRATOR:
After a journey of just twenty miles, the Chinese soldiers drew their guns, and their swords.

LUCILLE WILSON:
They were hacked to death, and they were thrown in the ditch, and after it was all over, some of their Chinese friends went back and got their bodies and buried them.

NARRATOR:
In Peking, some of the soldiers in the international army had already begun to take revenge. But the hostages were free. "Once more," the London Times exulted, "a small segment of the civilized world, cut off and surrounded by an Asiatic horde, has exhibited those moral qualities which render mere numbers powerless." For nearly two months, the president had prayed daily that the hostages would be saved. Now, at the end of August, McKinley had one more cause for alarm. King Humbert the First of Italy had just been assassinated in his summer palace by an anarchist. And anarchists had recently attempted to kill the Prince of Wales and the Shah of Persia. Now they were targeting the president of the United States.

JOHN MILTON COOPER, JR.:
The anarchists were the international terrorists of their day. They went around killing heads of state or even just prominent people because they believed in some way this would bring the system down. They believe that the system is corrupt, that it's unfair to little people, and that if you lop off the head, then the body itself will die.

NARRATOR:
The president, was warned of the danger, but went about his life as he always had, returning to Canton, Ohio, to spend the summer with Ida in the house they both so loved. "We began our married life in that house," McKinley said, "our children were born there, one of them died and was buried from there. Some of the tenderest memories of my life are centered there, and some of the saddest."

All that summer McKinley tried to spend as much time with Ida as he could. Ida desperately needed her husband. She lived in constant fear of the violent seizures that threatened to overcome her.

SYLVIA JUKES MORRIS:
And they would come on suddenly. They would be playing cards, or dining out with friends or something. And there was a hissing noise, that was always the warning sign, there was a loud hissing through her teeth and he knew it was coming on. So he would throw either his handkerchief over her head, to spare her embarrassment, or a napkin, whichever, if they were at the dining table.

NARRATOR:
Ida took to knitting slippers, which she gave away to charities. It was said that she knit 3500 pairs while she was First Lady. She cherished the daily rides alone with her husband on the lonely back roads outside of Canton.

On a small farm just 60 miles away, Leon Czolgosz was living with his parents. Twenty-eight year old Czolgosz hated the American government. He believed that all rulers were the enemies of working people.

JOHN MILTON COOPER, JR.:
He is the son of immigrants, but American born, who had sort of knocked around. Leon would drift off and he would work at various jobs in cities and he would come back to the farm. He was almost certainly mentally disturbed.

NARRATOR:
Later his family would recall that Leon had stayed up night after night reading accounts of King Humbert's assassination.
continue to Part IV



Introduction | Part I | Part II | Part III | Part IV

Program Description | Enhanced Transcript | Reference

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