Science Expo 1870
Inside ElectricityMysteries of the DeepWondrous MaterialsMarine AdvancesInvestigating Failure
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Fresnel Lens Tide Gauge Marine Advances

Since the turn of the nineteenth century, experts like the U.S. Naval Observatory's Matthew Maury have made strides in understanding ocean winds, currents, depths, salinities and tides. By forecasting sea conditions, charting ocean currents, and learning safe passages, seafarers can navigate the best ocean routes, much like a wagon driver navigates a city.

In our era, inventions have made marine exposure safer. Engineers design bigger vessels that can withstand the worst ocean weather. The Great Eastern, which carried 2,500 nautical miles of cable on the 1866 cable-laying expedition, dwarfs all other ships. Improved lifeboats provide safe escape for the crew and passengers of a disabled ship. And new, powerful lamp designs help lighthouses guide vessels through shoals and fog.

Lifeboat The Great Eastern Biram's Anemometer
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