Visit Your Local PBS Station PBS Home PBS Home Programs A-Z TV Schedules Watch Video Donate Shop PBS Search PBS
Rollover text informationAmerican Experience Logo
Chicago: City of the Century
The Film and More
Film Description
Primary Sources
Further Reading

Special Features
People and Events
Teacher's Guide

spacer above content
Primary Sources: The Chicago Tribune and the Haymarket Uprising

On May 6, 1886, the newspaper reported the rounding up of suspects in the Haymarket bombing, and described the relief being provided to the families of the policemen that had been killed.

In The Grasp of The Law
Spies, Fielden, and other Socialists Behind the Bars.

Shutting Up the Office of the Anarchists' Organ -- An Inquest Held Over Officer Degan and the Agitators Held as Accessories to His Murder -- Important Discoveries at Spies' Office -- Dynamite and Arms Seized -- The Toils Tightening About the Murderous Conspirators.

The Mayor, Chief Ebersold, State Attorney Grinnell, Inspector Bonfield and the leading commissioned officers hold a short consultation after Mr. Harrison came from the West Side and at its conclusion six detectives were told off in two divisions, and assigned to duty. Bonfield, Wiley, and Duffy were sent to the office of the Arbeiter-Zeitung on the upper floor of No. 107 Fifth Avenue. Entering there, Bonfield singled out an extremely pale gentleman who sat in the centre of the room and asked him:

"Are you August Spies?"

The affirmative answer came with a sickly attempt at a smile.

"Well, we want you and both these men," was the next remark of the officer as he pointed to Christian Spies, a brother of the editor, who was in the office, and Michael Schwab, the associate editor, who sat at the next desk.

The men were undoubtedly frightened, and had little to say, putting on their coats and preparing to leave the office without remark.

It fell to Officer Duffy to take charge of Chris Spies and when he was asked what his name was before starting said:

"I don't know as it's any of your business," was the tart rejoinder.

"You put on that coat and come with me to the station, and do it -- quick," was the retort, accompanied by a motion that meant business. That settled it, and the three prisoners walked over to the City Hall without a word, but all three keeping an anxious and frightened eye upon the little knots of people who paused to curiously examine the hurrying procession of six men. The pace was a lively one, and once at Central, the three were hurried into cells in the basement. The officers at once returned to the newspaper office and made search of the place. They found about 100 copies of the call for the hay-market meeting, and upon a galley, still indistributed, was the form of the villainous revenge proclamation which was scattered all over the city by a mysterious horseman Monday night after the rioting and shooting near the McCormick reaperworks. The police took these, and, aided by an outside printer, also found and confiscated sample letters from the cases containing the same fonts of type as those used in the "revenge" proclamation.

The editor was in a cell at the station, but there was no cessation of work, on the part of the printers, who appeared to have the copy for the 12 o'clock edition all in hand. They and persons in the counting room declared that the paper was to come out as usual, and the fact was reported by the police to the Mayor.

Mr. Harrison at once held a secret consultation with the police authorities as well as Mr. Winston the ex-Corporation Counsel, and then started for the office himself. As he stepped in to the office he was recognized by a man giving the name Oscar Niebe. Mr. Harrison sharply asked him if he was in charge, and before a somewhat broken and disconnected answer could be made, the Mayor demanded to know if a paper was to be printed. Niebe then explained that Spies was arrested and that he had just stopped in to see what effect the statement had upon the Arbeiter-Zeitung staff.

"I want to know whether the paper intends to publish any incendiary articles such as appeared yesterday?" commanded the representative of the municipality.

"No, no. We're going on all smooth and quiet; all smooth and quiet," replied Niebe.

"Well, I must be convinced of that. And before a paper is sent out a copy must be placed in the hands of Mr. Hand."

"O, yes. Hand is a friend of the workingmen. We'll do anything he says. There will be nothing exciting in the paper. We wouldn't put in anything of that kind."

"I will make sure that you don't," broke in the Mayor, "and Mr. Hand will be here directly."

"A word or two more of no importance passed and Mr. Harrison took departure, leaving the impression that the paper was to be allowed to go to press....

The Search of the "Arbeiter-Zeitung" Office and Finding of the Dynamite

Officer Timothy McKeogh, a detective, was around in the crowd with other officers and heard Spies ask the crowd to be quiet so they could hear the speakers. Spies began to talk, and told the audience how he had spoken at the meeting of Monday which led to the riot at McCormick's factory, but denied that he had been the means of inciting the mob. He said that the mob there had merely thrown stones and bricks, a harmless amusement, and that there was no use for calling the police. He quoted freely from Barson's speech, which ended with the cry "To arms!" He said he heard Fielden say, "Kill the law; throttle it, stab it, shoot it!" Shortly after that the police came marching from the Desplaines Street Station, and in a short time the bomb exploded. He said that in the raid on the Arbeiter-Zeitung office Wednesday morning (yesterday) the detectives under command of Lieut. Shea captured a quantity of material which they considered to be what was made into bombs. Several detectives went down on the lake shore at the end of the Randolph Street viaduct and ignited the stuff, which showed wonderful explosive power. It shattered bricks and boards, and broke a large piece of iron in two when it exploded. They used a very small quantity of the material when they made the experiments. The stuff was found by Officer Marks in the Arbeiter-Zeitung building, and an expert said there was enough there to blow up the City Hall.

The Coroner -- Where is this stuff now?

McKeogh -- In the vault of this building. [Sensation in the audience]

Officer Michael H. Marks, also a detective testified to the finding of the explosive material in the Arbeiter-Zeitung building, No. 107 Fifth avenue. He had been detailed by Lieut. Shea to make a thorough search, and did so. On the second floor are Spies' office and composing room, and in a small room just north of the office he found a bag filled with sand and sawdust mixed with nitroglycerine -- the same material as the bomb was filled with which exploded Tuesday night. He took it to the Central Station and Lieut. Shea suggested that it be tested. Several officers with a man named Buck, an expert at handling dynamite, went to the lake shore and made three experiments. The first was with some bricks, and they were pulverized; next a board and some stones were used, and the latter blown into the lake, the board being entirely smashed; at the third experiment a pile of bricks and an iron coupling-pin were used, the dynamite being put under it. The fuse was lighted, and when the explosion occurred the bricks were pulverized and the iron pin broken in two by its force. The stuff was pronounced dynamite, and the amount used for each experiment did not exceed the size of a hen's egg.

Marks said the dynamite was wrapped in a heavy brown paper bearing the label of the Adams Express Company, New York, but the direction had been taken off. The room in which the dynamite was found opens into Spies' office; in fact, the room was nothing more nor less than a closet; it was really a part of the room....

Justice May Reach Them
Arranging for the Prosecution of Spies et al.

State's-Attorney Grinnell and Chief of Police Ebersold closeted themselves together twice yesterday to consult as to the best course to pursue in getting together the evidence necessary to convict the murderous Anarchists who perpetrated the atrocious wholesale murder on Desplaines street Tuesday night. It was suggested that the State's Attorney had in mind the calling together of a special grand jury for the indicting of the treacherous rioters, and that all known Anarchists who participated in the meeting would be indicted by name on all possible charges, and that the indictments for the unknown rioters would be made to read "a person unknown by name, to be pointed out." "We will pursue the prosecution of the men who instigated the riot and helped carry out the murder as far as the law allows us," said Mr. Grinnell after he came out of the Chief's office. "We intend and determine to punish these rioters to the fullest extent of the law and for all there is in it," he continued, "and we hope justice will not be cheated this time. We want to look over all the evidence before declaring on what charge or charges to make and I cannot say now what the charges will be. I think we will bring the matter before the next regular grand jury."

It was rumored yesterday that the State's Attorney would present a request in due form to Judge Rogers or Judge Garnett to impanel a special grand jury to act on the cases of the Socialists Spies and Fielden, their associates, and dupes. The regular grand jury it was thought, would not be impaneled till Monday week, and would have all it could do to attend to the ordinary jail cases. Some good citizens suggested a special grand jury, because they do not like the personnel of the regular one. A few good men like Murray Nelson, A. J. Grover, and George Adams have been drawn, but the majority are small politicians, saloonkeepers, etc. It might not be safe to instrust them with any business of importance. It is not likely that this will be done....

Help For the Wounded
More Than Twenty-Five Thousand Dollars Donated Yesterday.

The Tribune Will Receive Donations for the Families of the Dead and Wounded Policemen Who Were Victims of the Tragedy Tuesday Night -- A Revised List of the Dead and Wounded Officers and Civilians -- Scene at the County Hospital.

The Tribune will receive subscriptions for the benefit of the families of policemen killed or wounded by the Socialists Tuesday night. The following was collected yesterday morning on an inbound Aurora passenger train on the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railway and turned over to the cashier of The Tribune Company:

  • T. P. Phillips
  • W. DeGolyen
  • N. W. Mundy
  • E. P. Ripley
  • Snodgrass & Spear
  • D. B. Lyman
  • C. F. Johnson
  • H. M. Cone
  • Royal Arcanum, No. 861
  • Wm. M. Thatcher
  • J. H. Nelson
  • E. C. Lawrence
  • Chas Carpenter
  • Handed In Without Names



The following letter was received at The Tribune office last night:

Chicago, May 5 -- [Editor of The Tribune] -- We enclose herewith our check for $50. Let this form a basis for a fund to be expended for the benefit of the families of those brave officers who lost their lives last night while so gallantly doing their duty. Our indignation against the foreign fanatics who have soiled the honored name of our city is too great for expression. With regret that our efficient Chief of Police is not chief of the city, yours truly, Garden City Mill Furnishing Company

Board of Trade Men

Among members of the Board of Trade yesterday the deepest feeling prevailed against the perpetrators of Tuesday night's murderous work, and the sentiment as expressed against the arch-Anarchists who incited the mob to the attack was of the bitterest nature. "Were a movement made from this quarter of the town to take those fellows out of the Central Station and hang them to the lamp-posts," said a prominent operator and director, "there are 500 men on this floor now who would lend willing hands in the work."

Early in the morning Messrs. Charles Singer, Charley Raymond, and other well-known members of the board circulated subscription papers for the relief of the families of the killed and wounded officers. Each list was rapidly filled with names of members who set down liberal amounts opposite, ranging from $10 to $500 each. As 11 o'clock the total amount of had reached $6,400. At 12 o'clock it was $9,342.50 and at half-past 2, when the day's business was over, the amount had reached $11,200. A meeting of the directors will be held this morning and steps taken to turn the money over to the Secretary of the Policemen's Benevolent Association or other proper authority, so that its immediate distribution may be assured. The names of contributors are about 300 in number. Mr. Phillip Armour headed one of the lists with $500, and several members now absent in the East when communicated with promptly telegraphed their subscriptions in amounts of $65 to $200. The money will be tendered in the name of the Chicago Board of Trade. It was not expected by the most sanguine that over $10,000 would be reached, and the liberal gift of $11,500 shows clearly the feeling that exists in trade circles.

Among the subscribers were:

  • Phillip Armour
  • Chicago Packing Co.
  • John Cadahy
  • Chad Raymond & Co.
  • George Walker
  • Ed Pardridge
  • Fraley Carter
  • Rosenbaum Bros
  • International Packing Co.
  • R. W. Clarks
  • N. S. Jones
  • C. W. Broga
  • Allerton Packing Co.
  • C. J. Singer
  • W. T. Baker
  • Hamill & Brine
  • N. B. Beam
  • Dwight & Gillette
  • M. K. Willard & Co.
  • J. B. Hobbs
  • Robert Warren
  • G. W. Higgins
  • Murry Nelson
  • G. B. Campbell
  • G. H. Wheeler
  • R. W. Roloson
  • Charles Schwartz
  • S. W. Allerton

On November 12, 1887, the newspaper reported the execution of the men convicted of the Haymarket bombing.

Dropped To Eternity
The Advocates of Social Revolution Meet Their Doom.

The Dreadful Scene in the North Corridor of the Gray-Walled Jail -- The Sentence of the Law Duly Carried Out -- All Four Strangled to Death -- Demeanor of the Men During the Few Trying Moments Before the Trap Was Sprung.

August Spies, Albert R. Parsons, George Engel, and Adolph Fischer were hanged on the gallows in Cook County Jail yesterday. They met death bravely and fearlessly; they were defiant to the end; as Infidels and Anarchists they died. With their legs and arms pinioned, the white shrouds tied around their bodies, the white hoods drawn over their heads, the nooses adjusted around their throats, and while the executioner was poising his chisel to cut the rope that swung them into eternity, they still breathed defiance. There were no speeches from the gallows; the Sheriff would no permit such speechmaking. The few remarks made were made during the last twenty seconds of the final preparations -- the twenty seconds preceding the springing of the trap.

"Our silence," said Spies, his voice muffled with the hood drawn over his head and his tones somewhat tremulous and indistinct, "Our silence will be more powerful than the voices they are going to strangle today."

"Hurrah for Anarchy!" said Fischer, his voice ringing out strong and clear.

"Hurrah for Anarchy!" echoed Engel still more loudly.

There was a second's pause. The four Anarchists were completely concealed in their shrouds and hoods. A Deputy Sheriff was tying the last fastening in Parson's shroud; the others were ready.

"This is the happiest moment of my life!" exclaimed Fischer.

"Then Parson's voice was heard. His voice was firm and strong.

"Shall I be allowed to speak?" he said. "O, men of America -- "

The Deputy Sheriff behind Parsons stepped back leaving the trap clear. This movement interrupted what Parsons was about to say.

"Let me speak, Sheriff Matson," he said loudly and firmly, and in tones half appealing and half interrogative. Then, his voice rising still higher as though beginning an emphatic speech:

"Let the voice of the people be heard -- "

The drop fell. It seemed as though Parsons' last word was cut in two by the downward plunge of the trap on which he and his companions stood. The four bodies swung in the air. Ten minutes later the doctors formally pronounced life extinct.

The execution was witnessed by about 170 to 180 people over fifty of whom were newspaper representatives. There was no crowding nor any of the disgraceful scenes that marked former executions on the same spot. The north corridor, where the scaffold was erected, is big enough to accommodate 500 to 600 spectators. There were probably 800 there when Jacobson was hanged, two or three years ago, quite as many at the execution of Mulkowski, and 1,800 at the hanging of the three Italian murderers. The crowding, the tobacco-smoking, the shuffling, and whispering, and laughing, and babble, and hum at these former executions reminded one more of a ward meeting than of a place where a human being was about to die. It was different yesterday. No one was admitted who had not some special claim to be present. Reporters, doctors, county officials, and the jury formed at least five-sixths of the total number of spectators. It was falsely reported that the execution would take place at 10:15, and before 10 all who had cards of admission were gathered in the jail office or in the courtyard. As many reporters as could be accommodated in the officer were admitted there early; the rest of the people had to stay in the yard until almost 11 o'clock. No outsider was admitted farther than the jail office before 10:50, when the heavy door leading to the cell corridor was opened by Chief-Deputy Cahill. The crowd poured through the "visitor's cage" to the south corridor and thence by the east passage to the north corridor; passing in there under the gallows which was erected at the east end of the corridor. On one side of the corridor there are four tiers of coils barred doors; on the other side and at either end there are the bare whitewashed walls of the building. The prisoners had all been removed from these cells to other parts of the building. The scaffold reached from the gallery in front of the second tier of cells to the wall on the opposite side -- the full width of the corridor, about twenty-five feet. It is the same scaffold that has been in use for years, a brown bare, grim structure, consisting chiefly of a platform, side posts, and top crossbar. The principal part of the platform is the trap, which is about fifteen feet by five. Against the wall at the rear of the platform was the wooden box in which the hangman -- the man who actually cuts the rope -- is concealed. The identity of the person who performs this part of the works is always concealed. The man is placed there before any outsider is admitted and remains there until the last has gone away. This box is about eight feet high by five feet wide and four feet deep. At a prearranged signal from the Sheriff the man concealed inside cuts the rope with a sharp chisel and the trap falls....

The Men On The Scaffold
How Their Appearance Impressed Different Reporters.

It is just 11:50 1/2 by the official time and the dragging moments have seemed like hours. Suddenly Chief-Bailiff Cahill appears from the east corridor with upraised hand and a pale, tense face. "Gentlemen of the jury!" he exclaims in a low, excited voice, "uncover your heads!" The jury as one man remove their hats, and, quicker than can be told, every man in the corridor stands bareheaded and breathless with expectancy. Each man breaks off in the middle of his half-uttered sentence and turns to his neighbor with a warning "s-s-s-h." Every eye is turned to the right-hand corner of the gallows where it joins the balcony of the second tier of cells. Muffled footsteps are heard in the east corridor. They come nearer and each man's heart beats faster. A white-robed figure appears around the corner, and each man in the corridor below realizes that he is looking into the eyes of August Spies. Behind him and to the right is Deputy-Sheriff Galpin. Spies takes three steps upon the hollow-sounding stage, and ere he takes the fourth the face and white-clad form of Adolph Fischer appear. He, too, looks down for an instant upon the scene below. Beside him is Deputy-Sheriff J. B. Hartke. Next comes Engel with Deputy-Sheriffs Spears and Peters, and last Parsons, with Deputy-Sheriff Beer. Before the spectator fairly realizes what has happened the deputies have stationed the four in a row and tightened the leg straps.. Then the eye notes that Sheriff Matson, Jailer Folz, and the Rev. Mr. Bolton are standing at the edge of the platform. Each is a giant in stature and the face of each is stern and set with repressed emotion. Galpin extends a reluctant hand and grasps the rope that dangles in front of Spies. He slips the noose over his head and draws tight the knot under his left ear. In his desire to be humane he leaves it loose enough to be comfortable. His humanity is mistaken and later is seen to be inhumanity. Then he goes on to Fischer, then to Engel, then to Parsons, and in the adjustment of each noose he does the same mistaken kindness. Spies stands like a stone, feet close together, and agony of mind written upon every lineament of his face. Fischer is more unconcerned than the most hardened spectator. He glances casually around, notes the various details, looks over the crowd below in search of familiar faces, and turns with a smile of amusement to his companion on his right. Engel looks stolid, stoical, phlegmatic, and stands perfectly rigid. Parsons, withdrawn, haggard face, alive with the agony of his inward conflict, but without a trace of fear, looks straight before him. While Galpin is adjusting the noose about Parsons' neck, Deputy Hartke places the death-cap upon Spies' head and draws it over his face. Spies seems taken by surprise, and as the cap descends turns to the deputy and exclaims in a low tone, inaudible to all but his hearer: "Why, this is queer! What are you putting this on for now!" It is plain that Spies intends to speak and that he is not prepared for the drawing of the cap so soon. Hartke does not answer. While he is drawing the gathering strings about the throat Peter draws the hood over Engel's head. As he finishes Engel moves uneasily.

"Is the knee-strap too tight, Engel?" Engel has known Peters for years and the deputy's question touches the doomed man.

"No," he replies, "kind friend that you are to still make efforts for my comfort! It is comfortable."

Then he faces to the front again and as if on second thought turns and through his death-cap says:

"Good-by! Give my love to my family; it is the last thing I shall ask."

In the meantime Deputy Spears has drawn the cap over the head of Parsons and Deputy Beer has put the death-mask over Fischer's face. Fischer smiles in his face and says: "Don't draw it so tight; I can't breathe." While the words are on his lips words intense with agony and the horror of death come forth from behind the hood that shrouds Spies face. As they die away Fischer's quiet, cool, unconcerned voice is heard. Then Engel's loud, strident voice takes up the tones that convince every ear of his sincerity. Parsons speaks last in his forced, oratorical style, strident with the bitterness of death. As he speaks Sheriff Matson steps back close to the box and his fingers close upon a slender string that runs within. One instant he pauses until the sentence shall be completed. Then he pulls sharply. The sound of a descending mallet is heard within, the floor gives way beneath their feet, and the last word is completed in eternity. Four while objects shoot down, the clanging trap resounds through the corridor. Then begins a scene of horror that freezes the blood. The loosely-adjusted nooses remain behind the left ear and do not slip to the back of the neck. Not a single neck is broken, and the horrors of a death by strangulation begin....

Cutting Down the Bodies
The Last Horrible Work of the Jailer's Duties.

When the shroud-covered bodies ceased to manifest any indications of life and the physicians withdrew to one side, pronouncing the men to be dead, there was a solemn pause. Nobody seemed to know just what to do. Nobody felt like speaking, or putting on a hat, or lighting a cigar. A discordant chorus of rasping squeaks arose from the moving of stools upon the stone floor, indicating that the spectators were nervous and undecided whether to go or to stay. The pause was broken by the appearance of Jailer Folz, followed by Deputies Gross and Baumgarten bearing between them a coffin. Everybody knew what this meant, and the callous pressed forward to see the bodies cut down; those who had seen enough hastened to leave before the more horrible spectacle in store should be begun. Compared to the taking down of the bodies and their examination by the jury the falling of the drop is but child's play. The one is instantaneous, and under their mufflings the men have lost all semblance to humanity. The other is a scene of horror from beginning to end. The bodies, still warm and flexible seem to be alive, and the distorted faces, livid rope marks, and grotesque attitudes are as horrible to the sight as nightmare to the dreamer. It is impossible to believe them dead; the look more like men in the stupor of intoxication.

The first casket was placed upon supports under the dangling bag which contained that which was a few moments before August Spies. Deputies and turnkeys followed bearing three more coffins. They were placed in a row, one under each dangling corpse. The coffins were handsome and substantial, of dark redwood and silver mounted. The covers were removed, and they were seen to be lined with plain white cloth. Deputy Gross began the work by unlocking the handcuffs on Spies' wrists. In his struggles the dead man had twisted and jammed the chains and the deputy had hard work to turn the key and get them free. The bag-like shroud was partially open at the back, and showed the handcuffs, the wrists and hands, and below hung the dangling legs clad in black pantaloons, and the limp feet incased in carpet slippers and swollen socks. On the third finger of the left hand was a plain gold ring....

A Great Public Funeral
It Is To Be Held Tomorrow At Midday.

The Defense Association Arranges Plans for an Imposing Street Parade and Display -- The Bodies of the Executed Men Turned Over to Their Friends -- Scenes in the Neighborhood -- Some Bitter Complaints.

The Defense Committee, consisting of Messrs. Stauber, Holmes, Smith, Oppenheimer, Linnemeyer, Urban, Knickrehm, and others, who did so much in behalf of the men who were executed, yesterday, met last night to discuss and form the details for the funeral and burial of Spies, Parsons, Fischer, Engel, and Lingg.

It was decided to hold the funerals at 12 o'clock Sunday, and the bodies will be interred at the Forest Home or Waldheim Cemetery.

August Spies' funeral will be held at the Aurora Turner-Hall and will be under the auspices of the Aurora Turn Verein, of which organization he was a leading member. His body will be taken from his mother's home some time during the afternoon, and after the impressive ceremonies peculiar to that order have taken place the dead Anarchist's face will be exposed to the view of the many thousands who are expected to attend and take part in the ceremonies. It is possible that his body will lie in state in Aurora Turner-Hall most of the afternoon -- at least his large list of admirers have asked that it be done.

The funerals of the other men will be held at the residence of their families, and Lingg's will be held at Mrs. Engel's home. Fischer was a member of the German Typographical Union, and that organization will have charge of the exercises at his house. The Carpenter's Union, of which Lingg was a member, and the Painters' Union, to which Engel was attached, will take charge of and conduct their funerals. All other Carpenter and Painter Unions will be invited and have already signified their intention of being present. Parsons was a member of the order of Knights of Labor, and all of the organization of that order in this city will be invited to take part in the funeral exercises at the house and march in procession. There will not be any religious ceremony of any kind or the reason that neither of the dead men was attached to any church or religious organization.

The procession will start at Fischer's residence and will proceed down Milwaukee avenue to Parson's house, where the Knights of Labor and others attending Parsons' funeral will join, and the whole body will move down past the Aurora Turner-Hall.

At the latter place the vast throng which has been taking a farewell look at Spies will fall into line and march to the place where the funeral exercises over Lingg and Engel's bodies have taken place, when the procession will be formed with the Defense Committee at the head, followed by the Aurora Turn Verein, the Knights of Labor organizations, the German Typographical Union, the carpenters' unions, the painters' unions, a number of singing societies in carriages, the bodies of the dead men in hearses, and the families, relatives, and friends in carriages. A number of brass bands with muffled drums will play dead marches as the solemn procession wends its way to the Northwestern depot on Wells street, where a special train will be waiting to take the funeral party to the cemetery.

At the cemetery speech-making in English and German by well-known speakers and singing by several English and German singing societies.

At the meeting last night it was not known who would deliver the speeches, but a committee consisting of William Holmes and William Urban was appointed to select the speakers and it was decided to engage both English and German orators.

The Defense Committee will hold another meeting tonight to make further arrangements and close the details of the funeral. It is the avowed determination of every sympathizer of the executed men to make this the greatest funeral held in Chicago.

The Aurora Turn-Verein has issued a printed call for a special meeting for tonight at which arrangements will be made to participate in the funeral of August Spies, who was a member of that organization. It is expected that a number of German societies will take part in the parade if one is permitted.

Site Navigation

The Film & More: Film Description | Transcript | Primary Sources | Further Reading | Acknowledgements

Chicago: City of the Century Home | The Film & More | Special Features | Timeline
Maps | People and Events | Teacher's Guide

American Experience | Feedback | Search & Site Map | Shop | Subscribe | Web Credits

© New content 1999-2003 PBS Online / WGBH

Exclusive Corporate Funding is provided by: