People return to index
Trinidad native Stokely Carmichael moved to New York at age 11 and later graduated from Howard University. He joined SNCC and participated in voter registration efforts in Mississippi and Alabama in the mid-1960s, helping form an independent black political group, the Lowndes County Freedom Organization. While helping complete James Meredith's 1966 "march against fear," Carmichael issued the first call for "black power." Taking over the chairmanship of SNCC from John Lewis, Carmichael changed his name to Kwame Ture to reflect his African heritage and distanced himself from the civil rights movement's earlier commitment to nonviolence, making common cause with the Black Panther Party in 1968.