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The Great Fever
Timeline of Yellow Fever in America

1495 - 1889 | 1898 - 2003  

1898

The destroyed USS Maine in Havana harbor February 13: An explosion destroys the USS Maine while anchored in Havana, killing 268 U.S. sailors and Marines. The incident leads to the Spanish-American War, which will expose U.S. troops to yellow fever.

1900

May 23: George Sternberg, surgeon general of the U.S. Army, recommends that a board be established for scientific study of infectious diseases, particularly yellow fever, in Cuba. Sternberg will choose Major Walter Reed, a physician in the U.S. Army, to lead the board known as the United States Army Yellow Fever Board.

May 24: Four doctors are named to serve on the board that will study yellow fever: Walter Reed, James Carroll, Aristides Agramonte and Jesse Lazear.

Board members visit Carlos Finley in Havana July: The board begins studying the disease, taking blood cultures from yellow fever victims before and after their deaths. Board members visit Carlos Finlay at his home in old Havana, hearing his theory that female mosquitoes transmit the disease.

August: The board begins testing Finlay's theory, allowing mosquitoes to feed on volunteers. For the first nine subjects, the results are negative.

James Carroll August 27: Board member James Carroll, who hadn't believed that mosquitoes transmitted the disease, volunteers to be exposed to a mosquito that had fed on an active case of yellow fever twelve days before. Carroll contracts the disease. He becomes seriously ill but recovers.

Jesse Lazear September 25: Jesse Lazear, likely bitten by a mosquito used in his experiments, dies of yellow fever.

October 23: Walter Reed presents a "Preliminary Note" about the board's findings to the annual meeting of the American Public Health Association in Indianapolis.

November 20: Camp Lazear, named in tribute to the sacrifice of Jesse Lazear, is established. The Yellow Fever Board pays volunteers to expose themselves to mosquito bites in order to show that the insect transmits the disease. Fourteen volunteers contract the disease; all recover.

1901

February 16: Walter Reed publishes a paper on the board's work in the Journal of the American Medical Association. An accompanying editorial agrees that the results of the board's experiments prove the mosquito theory of transmission.

Following Army efforts to eliminate breeding grounds for mosquitoes in Havana, no cases of yellow fever appear in the city from September 1901 to July 1902.

1902

November 23: After his appendix ruptures, Walter Reed develops peritonitis and dies.

1904

Major William Crawford Gorgas April: Major William Crawford Gorgas, who served as sanitation chief in Cuba during the U.S. occupation, is assigned to the Panama Canal Zone. He works to control the mosquito population in order to protect workers on the canal project from contracting yellow fever.

1905

Yellow fever again strikes New Orleans, causing more than 900 deaths in the state of Louisiana. Mosquito mitigation efforts control the disease, marking the final epidemic in the United States.

1909

The Walter Reed Hospital May 1: The Walter Reed Army General Hospital opens in Washington, D.C.

1929

Congress awards a special gold medal to surviving volunteers from Camp Lazear and members of the U.S. Army Yellow Fever Board or their next of kin.

1931

Yellow Fever: An Epidemiological and Historical Study of its Place of Origin, written by former Assistant Surgeon General Henry Rose Carter, is published after his death in 1925.

1936

Innoculating eggs with yellow fever vaccine November: A yellow fever vaccine, developed by researchers, including Max Theiler, at the Rockefeller Foundation Yellow Fever Laboratory in New York City, is first tested and put into production. As the threat of a world war appears, production is accelerated. The human serum in the vaccine causes an increased incidence of hepatitis.

1942

Max Theiler develops a safer serum-free vaccine for yellow fever which replaces the earlier vaccine.

1951

September: The Army medical complex in Washington, D.C. is renamed the Walter Reed Army Medical Center on the 100th anniversary of his birth.

October 13: Max Theiler is selected to receive a Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. In his work at the Rockefeller Foundation, he developed a safe, standardized vaccine for yellow fever. He had also identified the virus that served as the basis of the French yellow fever vaccine and pioneered the use of laboratory mice to study the disease.

1966

President Eisenhower November 21: President Dwight Eisenhower unveils a bronze bust of Walter Reed on the grounds of the Walter Reed Army Medical Center.

1996

The Walter Reed Society, established to preserve Reed's legacy, is founded.

2002

March: A Texas man, who had recently returned from a fishing trip in Brazil, dies from yellow fever, the third victim of the disease in the United States since 1996. Previously, no one in the United States had died from the disease for seven decades.

2003

January: The World Health Organization reports new cases of yellow fever in West Africa and the Sudan that caused at least sixty deaths.

1495 - 1889 | 1898 - 2003  

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