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Marcus Garvey: Look For Me in the Whirlwind

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Primary Sources

Learn more about Garvey's philosophy and opinions, and about what his critics said.

Correspondence of Marcus Garvey and Booker T. Washington
Before he left Jamaica for the United States, Garvey wrote one of the best-known African Americans of the day.

Objectives of the Universal Negro Improvement Association
This statement sums up the goals of the organization Garvey founded.

Declaration of Rights of the Negro Peoples of the World
Garvey and his movement adopted this declaration at their 1920 convention in New York.

Negroes of the World, The Eternal Has Happened
Garvey announces the establishment of the Black Star Line in this 1919 editorial.

The Conspiracy Of The East St. Louis Riots
Garvey comments on the terrible race riots of 1917.

J. Edgar Hoover Memo
The government watches Garvey very closely.

"Garvey Must Go"
African American leaders call Garvey a menace.

"The Negro's Greatest Enemy"
Read Garvey's extensive autobiographical statement from 1923.

"A Barefaced Colored Leader"
Marcus Garvey puts down W.E.B. Du Bois.

Statement of Arrest
Garvey reflects on his arrest in this January 1922 document.

Africa for the Africans
Garvey's April 1922 newspaper editorial explains his idea of returning to Africa.

Belief That Race Problem Will Adjust Itself A Fallacy
Garvey argues that former slaves have no future in America, and must turn to Africa.

Support the Black Star Line
A notice from The Negro World promotes Garvey's shipping line.

The Peace After World War I
Garvey addresses African colonialism in this 1918 editorial.

Garvey's Last Speech Before His Incarceration
In 1923, Garvey issued this rallying cry to his movement.

Speech: A Place in the Sun
Garvey advocates founding a nation for black people.

"Look for Me in the Whirlwind"
Garvey delivers an impassioned message from an Atlanta prison.

Garvey's Poetry and Songs
This selection includes lyrics for Garvey's song, "Keep Cool."

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