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Return With Honor Timeline

1945 - 1964 | 1965 - 1975

1965

February: When Viet Cong forces kill seven Americans and wound 109 more in an attack on an American base, Johnson authorizes retaliatory bombing of North Vietnam aimed at cutting off the flow of supplies to reduce the military pressure on South Vietnam.

U.S. ground troopsMarch 8: Johnson sends the first U.S. ground troops into action, a crucial turning point in the American involvement in the Vietnam War. At the beginning of the year there are 25,000 American troops; by the end of that year there are 185,000. The numbers increase to 385,000 in 1966, 485,000 in 1967, and 543,000 in 1968.

March 24: The first antiwar teach-in is held at the University of Michigan. At first, both supporters and opponents of the war attend the teach-ins. Before long, the campus teach-ins become anti-war rallies.

1967

Anti-war demonstrationsAnti-war demonstrations are held all over the United States. In 1967, 300,000 people take to the streets in New York City, and in Washington 100,000 people try to shut down the Pentagon. Expressing the views of more and more Americans, Women Strike for Peace, a women's anti-war organization, writes, "Stop! Don't drench the jungles of Asia with the blood of our sons. Don't force our sons to kill women and children whose only crime is to live in a country ripped by civil war."

1968

The increased U.S. involvement in Vietnam adds 389 Americans to the ranks of captured or missing during the year. In 1969, 189 more are added.

Viet Cong soldierJanuary-February: North Vietnamese forces mount a surprise attack on provincial capitals and other towns in South Vietnam, known as the Tet offensive. In Saigon, Viet Cong forces strike the American embassy, Tan Son Nhut air base, and even the presidential palace. The attack is beaten back, but the offensive is a psychological victory for the North Vietnamese.

1969

American POWMay: Two American POWs, Air Force Capt. John Dramesi and a cellmate, Air Force Capt. Ed Atterberry, attempt to escape from the "Zoo," a prison facility southwest of Hoa Lo. The men get out of the prison, but are caught a few miles from the prison and returned. The failed escape attempt has disastrous results for the POWs. In "Honor Bound," their book about American prisoners of war in Southeast Asia, Stuart Rochester and Frederick Kiley write: "Beginning with the escapees and then rapidly moving . . . to other camps as well, prison authorities conducted a sweeping inquisition and crackdown that, for the scope and intensity of the reprisals, was the most violent episode of the captivity."

May: In a major policy reversal regarding POWs, Secretary of State Melvin Laird goes public with the statement that U.S. POWs are not being treated humanely. Until then, the U.S. government policy was to make no public statements about POWs in the belief that publicity about poor conditions would only lead to worse POW treatment. Sybil Stockdale, wife of POW Jim Stockdale, had worked with other POW family members to publicize the plight of POWs and had urged the United States to condemn the brutal treatment. Speaking of the policy change, she later said: "That was a great satisfaction to me and to all of us wives who had been working so hard."

July: Wives and other family members of American prisoners of war and those missing in action form the National League of Families of American Prisoners and Missing in Southeast Asia. The group's goal is to attract national attention to the plight of their imprisoned and missing family members. They also work together to increase public awareness about the inhumane treatment of POWs by the North Vietnamese -- a struggle that leads the U.S. government to speak out against POW treatment.

September 3: Ho Chi Minh dies at the age of 79. His death coincides with a dramatic improvement in the treatment of POWs, a link many believe is not coincidental. The era of steady torture and poor treatment is replaced with lighter punishment, better food, and generally improved living conditions. As Vice Admiral Jim Stockdale remembered later, after Ho's death there was "a lot less brutality -- and larger bowls of rice."

1971

The New York Times publishes a secret Department of Defense account of the American involvement in Vietnam, known as the Pentagon Papers. Daniel Ellsberg, a defense analyst, is responsible for leaking the papers, which reveal some of the fabrications and faulty assumptions that have guided America's involvement.

1972

December: To convince the North Vietnamese to return to the negotiating table and achieve Nixon's goal of "peace with honor," the Nixon administration conducts the most intensive bombing campaign of the entire war, targeting North Vietnamese factories and ports.

Bombing of North VietnamChristmas: Nixon again orders a massive bombing of North Vietnam, including Hanoi, and also orders the mining of Hanoi Harbor. American prisoners of war watch from the Hoa Lo prison as anti-aircraft missiles light up the sky.

1973

Welcoming POWs homeJanuary 27: A cease-fire is signed in Paris between North and South Vietnam. Americans have lost 58,000 men in the war, with far more wounded. Over the span of the war, the United States has spent over $150 billion.

February 12: The first POWs to be released under the cease-fire go home.

POW returns homeMarch 29: Only 24 hours behind schedule, the last of the known 591 American POWs leave Hanoi. The men are flown to Clark Air Force Base in the Philippines, where they are greeted with cheers. They receive medical examinations, new uniforms, and for the first time since their captivity, all the servings of food they want. For many Americans, the POWs' return home marks the final chapter of the country's involvement in the Vietnam War.

1975

South Vietnam falls to the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong. After thirty years of revolutionary civil wars and repeated conflicts against colonial powers, peace comes to Vietnam.



1945 - 1964 | 1965 - 1975

Vietnam Online Timeline
Visit the extensive timeline on American Experience's Vietnam Online Web site for more on the sequence of events in Vietnam.
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/vietnam/time/index.html



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