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Further Reading

Web Sites | Books | Articles

The Malcolm X Project at Columbia University
Though many parts of this Web site are incomplete, it provides a biography of Malcolm X plus a timeline and lists of resources.

American Experience: Marcus Garvey: Look for Me in the Whirlwind
Malcolm X's parents were followers of Marcus Garvey. This American Experience site explores the influential black nationalist leader and his movement.

American Experience: Citizen King
Another American Experience site provides information on the civil rights movement. In historic film footage from 1963, Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and James Baldwin comment on the challenging landscape of American race relations.

P.O.V.: Brother Outsider: The Life of Bayard Rustin
Listen to a 1962 debate on integration and separation featuring Malcolm X and Bayard Rustin, the subject of this PBS P.O.V. Web site (the debate is in the "Rustin's Work" section of the site).

Web Sites | Books | Articles

Acuna, Rodolfo. Occupied America: A History of Chicanos. New York: Harper & Row, 1981.

Breitmen, George, ed. Malcolm Speaks. New York: Merit, 1969.

Brisbane, Robert. Black Activism. Valley Forge, Pennsylvania: Judson Press, 1974.

Carson, Claybourne. Malcolm X: The FBI File. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1991.

----, et al. The Eyes on the Prize Civil Rights Reader. New York: Penguin, 1991.

Davis, Thulani. Malcolm X: The Great Photographs. New York: Stewart, Tabon and Chang, 1992.

Dyson, Michael Eric. Making Malcolm: The Myth and Meaning of Malcolm X. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Essien-Udom, E. U. Black Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1962.

Evanzz, Karl. The Judas Factor: The Plot to Kill Malcolm X. New York: Thunder's Mouth Press, 1992.

Friedly, Michael. The Assassination of Malcolm X. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1992.

Gallen, David, ed. Malcolm A to Z: The Man and His Ideas. New York: Carroll and Graf, 1992.

Garrow, David. Bearing the Cross: Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. New York: Vintage, 1988.

Goldman, Peter. The Death and Life of Malcolm X. Champaign-Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1979.

Haley, Alex. The Autobiography of Malcolm X. New York: Grove, 1965.

Hampton, Henry and Steve Fayer. Voices of Freedom: Oral Histories from the Civil Rights Movement from the 1950s Through the 1980s. New York: Bantam, 1990.

Harding, Vincent, Robin D. G. Kelley and Earl Lewis. We Changed the World: African Americans, 1945-1970. The Young Oxford History of African Americans, v. 9. New York: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Hill, Robert A. Marcus Garvey: Life and Lessons. Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1987.

Lincoln, C. Eric. The Black Muslims in America. Boston, Beacon. 1961.

Lomax, Louis. When the Word is Given. Cleveland: World, 1963.

Martin, Tony. Race First. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood, 1976.

Strickland, William, et al. Malcolm X: Make It Plain. Penquin Books, 1994.

Tuttle, William. Race Riot: Chicago, The Red Summer of 1919. New York: Atheneum, 1970.

Vincent, Theodore. Black Power and the Garvey Movement. San Francisco: Ramparts, 1972.

Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1967.

Web Sites | Books | Articles

Parks, Gordon. "The White Devil's Day is Almost Over." Life, May 31, 1963.

Speakman, Lynn. "Who Killed Malcolm X?" The Valley Advocate, November 26, 1992, pp. 3-6.

Vincent, Theodore. "The Garveyite Parents of Malcolm X." The Black Scholar, vol. 20, #2, April, 1989.

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