Reconstruction
State by State

In the years between the U.S. Census surveys of 1860 and 1870, the nation split apart and waged a war that killed hundreds of thousands of Americans, and wounded or disabled many more.

Farms and property were destroyed; capital was diverted; and Southern agriculture was transformed when four million black people were emancipated from slavery.

Census data from 1860 and 1870 reveals trends in farm values and manufacturing output, and highlights each state's fortunes.

Select the map or a state from the pull-down menu to explore the impact of war.

Map of the United States -- 1870
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