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Toni Anderson, Music Historian, on
New York City

Toni Anderson Anderson : Their goal was to reach New York City. They had traveled north through Ohio, through some of the churches that were the hotbeds of the abolitionist movement, and they were on their way to New York City.

White felt that if he could get his singers into New York City, where the AMA headquarters were, where the AMA officials were, and if they could hear and see these students sing, that he would finally get their endorsement. By the time they got to New York City, though, it had been a month, almost two months. And they were in dire straits. At this point, it was either going to be sink or swim. They would either get the endorsement of the AMA and really get off and running, or they were going to have to pack their bags and go home. And as Professor Spence had said, "get home as best they could." There was no way to even get home. No finances. So this was a critical turning point for them.

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