The Jubilee Singers embark for a three-year European tour.
The Dutch flocked to see for the singers, earning the troupe $10,000 in Holland. President Cravath of Fisk joined the troupe in 1877 after its director, George White, became too sick to keep traveling. Ella Sheppard was persuaded to take over musical direction of the troupe during a successful, but exhausting, tour of Germany and Switzerland.
The Civil Rights Act prohibits the segregation of public facilities and the exclusion of African Americans from jury duty. This law was passed on the condition that schools and cemeteries would remain segregated. It was not enforced in the South and was struck down by the Supreme Court in 1883.
Meharry Medical College, the nation's first school for the training of
African American health care providers, opens in Nashville. The Freedmen's Aid Society of the Methodist Episcopal Church helped established Meharry as a department of Central Tennessee College. The school became independent in 1915.
Republican Rutherford B. Hayes becomes president of the United States after agreeing to remove federal troops from the South. Hayes became president only after agreeing to cooperate with southern Democrats, who now controlled the House of Representatives. Two years later, Congress repealed the president's right to use troops at polling sites in order to guarantee African Americans' access to the ballot box. Reconstruction was over.
The American Missionary Association cuts off the Jubilee Singers' funding. Although well-received in Germany, the singers had begun to fall into debt over the winter. Meanwhile, sympathy for freedmen in the U.S. had largely dissipated in the face of economic depression. The A.M.A., which had claimed the singers as its own when they were doing well, now refused to support them.
The Jubilee Singers disband after a final concert in Luneberg, Germany. Due to sickness and exhaustion among the singers, they had been forced to perform with as few as six out of eleven members during the months preceding their breakup. Thomas Rutling, who had been with the group since its founding, was too sick to participate even in their final concert. The group, minus three who elected to stay in Europe, sailed for home on July 6.
A reorganized troupe of Fisk Jubilee Singers sets out for its first tour under the direction of George White and Frederick Loudin. With Loudin, this group toured the American West, Asia, Australia and New Zealand in the 1880s.
1863 - 1868 | 1869 - 1874 | 1875 - 1879