Featured Cast & Crew
  • EXECUTIVE PRODUCER
    • Sharon Grimberg
  • FEATURING
    • Wes Studi
    • Freddy Douglas
    • Josh Blaylock
    • Will Finley
    • Wesley French
    • Carla-Rae Holland
    • Emily Podleski
  • PRODUCED BY
    • Mark Zwonitzer
    • Rob Rapley
  • RECREATIONS PRODUCED BY
    • Jennifer Pearce
  • WRITTEN BY
    • Mark Zwonitzer
  • DIRECTED BY
    • Chris Eyre
  • EDITED BY
    • Penny Elliott Hays
  • NARRATED BY
    • Benjamin Bratt
  • PRINCIPAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • Paul Goldsmith, ASC
  • ADDITIONAL PHOTOGRAPHY
    • Stephen McCarthy
    • Allen Moore
    • Ramon Engle
  • MUSIC BY
    • John Kusiak
  • COORDINATING PRODUCER
    • Cathleen O'Connell
  • ASSOCIATE PRODUCER
    • Raquel Chapa
  • ORIGINAL CONCEPT DEVELOPED BY
    • Paul Taylor
  • CASTING DIRECTOR
    • Rene Haynes, CSA
  • LINE PRODUCER
    • Devorah DeVries
  • PRODUCTION MANAGER
    • Deborah Clancy Porfido
  • PRODUCTION COORDINATORS
    • Rebecca Campbell
    • James Singleton
  • ASSOCIATE PRODUCERS
    • Mike Bowes
    • Spencer Kehe
  • ARCHIVAL RESEARCHER
    • Julia Morrison
  • ASSISTANT EDITOR
    • Adam Bryant
  • PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS
    • Rebecca White
    • Lucia Mandelbaum
    • Alissa Martin
  • SERIES PRODUCTION MANAGER
    • Nancy Sherman
  • PRODUCTION DESIGNER
    • Akeime Mitterlehner
  • COSTUME DESIGNERS
    • Virginia Johnson
    • Lydia Tanji
    • Marcy Froehlich
  • HAIR DEPARTMENT HEAD
    • Coni Andress
  • MAKE-UP DEPARTMENT HEADS
    • Judy Ponder
    • John Bayless
  • FIRST ASSISTANT DIRECTORS
    • Randy Barbee
    • Matthew V. Campbell
  • SECOND ASSISTANT DIRECTORS
    • Jason Piccolo
    • Darren Maynard
  • ART DIRECTORS
    • Melinda Sanders
    • Amy Whitten
  • ART COORDINATORS
    • Ashley Patterson
    • Alana Lowe Schwartz
  • CONSTRUCTION COORDINATOR
    • Charles Armstrong
  • BUILDER
    • John Kennett
  • PROP MASTERS
    • Dwight Benjamin-Creel
    • Amy Butterfield
    • Robin Everett-McGuirl
  • PROP ASSISTANTS
    • Shawn Gray
    • Tania Villacres
  • SET DRESSERS
    • Darrin Tilton
    • David Gunter
    • Mike Ellison
  • GREENSMAN
    • Donnie Holloway
  • ART PRODUCTION ASSISTANT
    • Chris Ryan
  • ANIMAL WRANGLERS
    • Ed Dabney
    • John Allegra/Allegra Farms
    • James Jacobson
  • WARDROBE SUPERVISOR
    • Liz Clifford
  • LEAD SET WARDROBE
    • Joulles Wright
    • Mike Burke
  • SET COSTUMERS
    • Nancy J. Robinson
    • Pat McMahon
    • Lesley Case
  • STITCHERS
    • Synthia F. Cochran
    • Susanna Brown
  • WARDROBE PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS
    • Melanie Mascioli
    • Maggie Ronck
    • Carrie Davis
  • HAIR KEYS
    • Vanessa Davis-Kaib
    • Karen Lovell
    • Monty Schuth
  • HAIR ARTISTS
    • Mary Young-Everrett
    • Paula Dion
    • Brenda McNally
  • MAKE-UP KEYS
    • Donna Premick
    • Julie Callihan
  • MAKE-UP ARTISTS
    • Theresa Foshee
    • Linda Boykin Williams
    • Carla Antonio
  • FIRST ASSISTANT CAMERA
    • Joseph Thomas
    • Greg Wimer
    • Bret Lanius
  • SECOND ASSISTANT CAMERA/LOADER
    • Dwight Campbell
    • Mark Killian
  • "B" CAMERA FIRST ASSISTANT
    • Tom Sorlie
  • GAFFERS
    • Denny Mooradian
    • Mike Guerra
    • Tully McCullough
  • KEY GRIPS
    • Billy Sherrill
    • Wally Argo
    • Roger Sherer
  • BEST BOY ELECTRICS
    • Jeff Becker
    • Jess Jennings
  • BEST BOY GRIPS
    • Keith Washington
    • John Kaplan
  • ELECTRICIANS
    • Rick Crank
    • Jeff Tanger
  • GRIP
    • West Chambliss
  • SWINGS
    • Chris Sorel
    • Tom Kilberg
  • SOUND RECORDISTS
    • Jim Hawkins
    • John Cameron
  • BOOM OPERATOR
    • Ethan Payne
  • INTERVIEW SOUND RECORDISTS
    • Ben Turney
    • Nathan Young
  • SPECIAL EFFECTS SUPERVISORS
    • Russ Ellis
    • John McGrath
  • SPECIAL EFFECTS ASSISTANTS
    • Dale Lohrey
    • Eric Bedard
    • Sam Dinwiddie
  • HELICOPTER PILOT
    • Mike Peavey
  • LOCATION MANAGERS
    • Mike Riley
    • Will Toubman
  • LOCATION ASSISTANTS
    • Seth Zimmerman
    • Linda Woodward Geiger
  • LOCATION SCOUT
    • Norm Bielowicz (Georgia)
  • ADDITIONAL CASTING
    • Patrick Ingram (Atlanta)
    • Orvel Baldridge (Oklahoma)
    • Boston Casting (Boston)
  • EXTRAS CASTING COORDINATORS
    • Janel Bersabal
    • Fay Sutherland
  • ASSISTANT TO CAST
    • Megan King
  • CASTING ASSISTANT
    • Chipa Wolfe
  • CATERING
    • Four Corners Catering
    • Dan Cooper
  • CRAFT SERVICES
    • Susan Van Apeldoorn
    • Nicole Anderson
    • Stephanie Beman
  • ACTORS
    • Cleo Deerinwater
    • Ken Foster
    • Robert Girty
    • Aaron Hair
    • Andrew Hair
    • Jack Harkleroad
    • John A. Ketcher
    • Gwen Mason
    • Joshua Nelson
    • Edward M. Robinson
    • Woodrow Ross
    • Kurt Sternlof
    • Joe Stiliano
    • Jackson Walker
  • EXTRAS
    • Babatunde Elijah Abdullah
    • John Allison
    • Darius Bailey
    • Jeffrey Barehand
    • Dan Bolton
    • Margaret Ann Brady
    • David Calhoun
    • Dale Carson
    • Isaac Climbingbear
    • Anne Colpitts
    • Elizabeth Condon
    • Brittany Cooper
    • Grace Costa
    • Barry Joe Craig
    • Candace Craig
    • Charles Crowe
    • Isaih Davis
    • Malia Davis
    • Myrtle Driver
    • Cheyenne Drowningbear
    • Cree Drowningbear
    • Deborah Duke
    • Mark Dumond
    • Kelly Finley
    • John R. French
    • Wayne Fritsche
    • Brienne Gordon
    • Jacqueline Gordon
    • Athena Greenberg-Arnold
    • Donaka Greenberg-Arnold
    • Theron Greenberg-Arnold
    • Ron Hall
    • James Hannah
    • Robert Hatch
    • Suzanne Hendrix
    • Mark Hetherington
    • Maria Hostage
    • Tiffany Howcroft
    • Stephen Humeston
    • Nataya Charae Huskey
    • Robin Jumper
    • Nancy Kwant
    • Anthony Currne Lett
    • Ryan Lewis
    • Emery Littlejohn
    • Jordan Littlejohn
    • Malakai Littlejohn
    • Anthony Kirk Locust
    • Uriah Maney
    • J.G. Meath
    • Justin Pheasant
    • Jerry Wolf Duff Sellers
    • Kieran Sequoyah
    • Sammi Sequoyah
    • Brad Smith
    • Jamie Spears
    • Rob Spears
    • Ron Spears Jr.
    • Brian Spencer
    • Mary Standely
    • Brenda Standingdeer
    • Sadie Standingdeer
    • Mark H. Stover, Jr.
    • Liam Sweeney
    • Geraldine Thompson
    • Steve Toney
    • Carandee Wachacha
    • Mark Wacome-Stevick
    • Kristina Wacome-Stevick
    • Joryn Walker
    • Justin Walker
    • Dewitt Warbington
    • Steve Warren
    • Richard Westcott
    • Matt Whorf
    • Loranzo Daniel Wilnoty
    • Zack Winchester
    • Casper Wolfe
  • NATIVE CULTURAL ADVISORS
    • Myrtle Driver
    • Benny Smith
  • DIALECT COACH - Cherokee
    • Harry Oosahwee
  • STICKBALL COORDINATOR/ADVISOR
    • Bill Reed
  • STUNT DOUBLE
    • Andy Martin
  • PARAMEDICS/SET MEDICS
    • Stan Swofford
    • Charlie Andrews
    • Joshua Brackett
  • KEY SET PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS
    • Amir Khan
    • Ken Donaldson
  • LOCATION PRODUCTION ASSISTANTS
    • Alex Calderon
    • Jessie Sasser Daniel
    • Eric Fox
    • Sterlin Harjo
    • Mitch Hirsch
    • Matthew Jackson
    • Brandon Kerr
    • David LaCarubba
    • Konrad Lewis
    • Max McDonough
    • Rob Rabe
    • Chuck Williams
    • Stephanie Wrenn
  • ASSISTANTS TO CHRIS EYRE
    • Tamara Miyasato
    • Tvli Jacob
  • INTERNS
    • Patrick Breen
    • Lee Carluccio
    • Alexia Dellner
    • Liz Harrod
    • Lucia Jazayeri
    • Leigh Lanocha
    • Samantha Leichtamer
    • Sean Rider
    • Mike Satalof
    • Mac Schwerin
    • Tory Starr
    • Meredith Watt
  • POST-PRODUCTION SUPERVISOR
    • Jamila Wignot
  • MOTION GRAPHIC ARTIST
    • Mark Thompson
  • MAPS
    • Alisa Placas, Lucid Animation
  • VISUAL EFFECTS
    • The Molecule
    • Andrew Bly
    • Luis de Leon
    • Luke DiTommaso
    • Christopher I. Hayes
    • Chris Healer
    • Ted Markovic
  • FILM LAB/TELECINE
    • PostWorks New York
  • COLORIST
    • John Crowley
  • ON-LINE EDITOR
    • Martin Benn
  • SOUND EDITORS
    • Ira Spiegel
    • Jim Briggs III
    • Rob Rapley
  • SOUND MIXERS
    • Martin Czembor
    • Jim Briggs III
    • Gramercy Post
  • TRANSCRIBER
    • Colleen Sackheim
  • VOICE-OVER RECORDING
    • POP Sound
  • ADDITIONAL MUSIC
    • P. Andrew Willis
  • MUSIC PREPARATION
    • Ray Tarantola
    • Rob Jaret
  • NATIVE MUSIC CONSULTANT
    • Victoria Lindsey Levine
  • MUSICIANS
    • The Hawthorne Quartet
    • Ronan L. Lefkowitz (Violin)
    • Si-Jing Huang (Violin)
    • Mark D. Ludwig (Violin)
    • Sato T. Knudsen (Cello)
    • Richard Sebring (French Horn)
    • Jonathan Menkis (French Horn)
    • Thomas Martin (Clarinet)
    • Steven Emery (Trumpet)
    • Laura Ahlebeck (Oboe)
    • Cynthia Meyers (flute)
  • MUSIC SOURCE
    • "Guide Me, Jehovah"
    • Performed by the Cherokee National Youth Choir
    • Courtesy of the Cherokee Nation
  • ARCHIVAL MATERIAL COURTESY OF
    • American Antiquarian Society
    • American Philosophical Society
    • AMG
    • Collection of The New-York Historical Society
    • Collection of the Supreme Court of the United States
    • Corbis
    • David Rumsey Map Collection
    • Georgia Archives
    • Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma
    • Hargrett Rare Book and Manuscript Library/ University of Georgia Libraries
    • Lafayette-Walker County Library, Lafayette, GA
    • Library of Congress
    • National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
    • National Archives & Records Administration
    • North Carolina Museum of History
    • North Carolina Office of Archives and History, Raleigh, NC
    • Oklahoma Historical Society Research Division
    • Oklahoma Tourism and Recreation Department
    • Thirteen/WNET New York
    • University of Oklahoma Press
    • University of Tennessee Libraries
    • Walker County Historical Society
    • Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma Libraries
    • William L. Clements Library, University of Michigan
    • Woolaroc Museum, Bartlesville, Oklahoma
  • LOCATIONS
    • B.J. Reece Apple House, Ellijay, GA
    • Center for Dramatic Art, UNC at Chapel Hill
    • Grand View Inn & Resort, Jaffrey, NH
    • Georgia State Parks & Historic Sites
    • Amicalola Falls State Park, Dawsonville, GA
    • Chief Vann House, Chatsworth, GA
    • New Echota Historic Site, Calhoun, GA
    • Old Sturbridge Village, Sturbridge, MA
    • Red Clay Historic Park, Cleveland, TN
    • Salvation Army Heart O'Hills Camp & Conference Center, Welling, OK
    • USDA Forest Service
    • Johns Mountain Overlook, La Fayette, GA
    • Ridge & Valley Scenic By-Way, La Fayette, GA
  • SPECIAL THANKS
    • Cherokee Nation
    • Eastern Band Cherokee
    • The Atlanta Opera
    • Benevolent Protector of the Order of the Elk, Calhoun, GA
    • Dalton Convention & Visitors Bureau
    • Lynne Harlan
    • History Alive
    • Jim & Elizabeth Keathley
    • The Management & Staff of the Super 8 Motel, Dalton, GA
    • The Management & Staff of LaQuinta Hotel, Dalton, GA
    • New Hampshire Film Commission
    • Sue Anne Wells and the Staff of Carter Farms
  • PROGRAM ADVISOR
    • Jace Weaver
  • SERIES ADVISORS
    • Colin G. Calloway
    • R. David Edmunds
    • Donald Fixico
    • Louis P. Masur
    • Jean O'Brien
  • CREATIVE CONSULTANT
    • N. Bird Runningwater
  • For NAPT

    Executive In Charge
    • Shirley K. Sneve
    In memory of Cleo Deerinwater

    For American Experience

    POST PRODUCTION
    • Vanessa Ezersky
    • Glenn Fukushima
    • Greg Shea
  • SERIES DESIGNER
    • Alison Kennedy
  • ON-LINE EDITOR
    • Spencer Gentry
  • SOUND MIX
    • John Jenkins
  • PRODUCTION MANAGER
    • Nancy Sherman
  • LEGAL
    • Jay Fialkov
    • Janice Flood
    • Maureen Jordan
    • Scott Kardel
  • PROJECT ADMINISTRATION
    • Andrew Bergner
    • Kelsey Dorwart
    • Susana Fernandes
    • Pamela Gaudiano
  • MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • Laura Bowman
    • Jen Holmes
    • Patrick Ramirez
  • PROJECT MANAGER
    • Lauren Prestileo
  • MULTIMEDIA PRODUCERS
    • Angélica Allende Brisk
    • Tvli Jacob
    • Benjamin Walker
    • Callie T. Wiser
  • DIRECTOR OF NEW MEDIA
    • Maria Daniels
  • SENIOR EDITOR
    • Paul Taylor
  • SERIES PRODUCER
    • Susan Bellows
  • SERIES MANAGER
    • James E. Dunford
  • COORDINATING PRODUCER
    • Susan Mottau
  • Executive Producer
    • Mark Samels

An Apograph Productions Inc. film for American Experience in association with Tecumseh LLC and Native American Public Telecommunications

©2009 WGBH Educational Foundation

All rights reserved.

A Tecumseh LLC film for American Experience in association with
Native American Public Telecommunications.

©2009

WGBH Educational Foundation

All rights reserved.

Exclusive Corporate
Funding Provided by:
Liberty Mutual Insurance
Major Funding by:
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Additional Funding
Provided by:
American Experience