Featured Cast & Crew
  • Executive Producer
    • Sharon Grimberg
  • Written by
    • Marcia Smith
  • Produced and Directed by
    • Stanley Nelson
  • Co-produced by
    • Julianna Brannum
  • Narrated by
    • Benjamin Bratt
  • Edited by
    • Aljernon Tunsil and Lillian Benson
  • Co-Editor
    • Lawrence Lerew
  • Music by
    • John Kusiak
  • Coordinating Producer
    • Cathleen O'Connell
  • Cinematography
    • Stephen McCarthy
    • Allen Moore
    • Eddie Marritz
    • Michael Chin
  • Sound Recordists
    • George Shafnacker
    • Matty Nematollahi
    • Michael Boyle
    • David Stevens
  • Associate Producer
    • Michael Rossi
  • Production Assistants
    • Lynsey Jones
    • Jennifer A. Lopez
    • Darwyn Roanhorse
    • Blackhorse Lowe
    • Doug Bissonette
    • Taylor Calmus
  • Archival Researchers
    • Julianna Brannum
    • Jenny Oh
  • Administrator for Firelight Media
    • Susan Starr
  • Interns
    • Heather Duthie
    • Valarie Jernigan
    • Alexandra Lacey
    • Jacqueline Olive
  • Photo Animation
    • Acme Filmworks
  • Animation Director
    • Janet Perlman
  • Maps
    • Alisa Placas, Lucid Animation
  • Telecine
    • Ira Schweitzer, Postworks
  • Online Editor
    • Jesse Spencer, Video Arts
  • Colorist
    • Scot Olive, Postworks
  • Sound Design and Mix
    • Christopher D. Anderson, Mix One Studios
    • James LeBrecht, Berkeley Sound Artists
  • Voice Over Recording
    • Pop Studios
  • Additional Music
    • P. Andrew Willis
  • Native Music Consultant
    • Victoria Lindsey Levine
  • Musicians
    • William M. Novick
    • Richard S. Sebring
  • Archival Footage
    • ABC News Videosource
    • BBC Motion Gallery
    • Beeld en Geluid, VPRO
    • The CONUS Archive
    • Footage Farm USA
    • Ina – Institut national de l’audiovisuel
    • John E. Allen, Inc.
    • KELO-TV
    • Kevin McKiernan
    • KSTP-TV
    • Minnesota Historical Society
    • NBC News Archives
    • Synchronous KSTP-TV
    • TSR – télévision suisse
    • UCLA Film & Television Archive
    • University of South Carolina Newsfilm Archive
    • Diane Orr Collection, Special Collections, J. Willard Marriott Library, Univ. of Utah
    • Archival Photographs
    • AP Images
    • Bill Zimmerman
    • Corbis
    • Cumberland County Historical Society, Carlisle, PA
    • Dennis Banks
    • Dick Bancroft
    • Kevin McKiernan
    • Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division
    • National Anthropological Archives, Smithsonian Institution
    • National Archives, Rocky Mountain Region
    • National Archives, Southwest Region
    • National Museum of the American Indian, Smithsonian Institution
    • Nebraska State Historical Society
    • The Newberry Library, Chicago
    • Northwestern University Library, Edward S. Curtis’s “The North American Indian”
    • Oglala Lakota College
    • The U.S. Army Military History Institute
    • Western History Collections, University of Oklahoma Library
    • Western History/Genealogy Department, Denver Public Library
  • Special Thanks
    • Charles Abourezk
    • Black Hills Aerial Adventures
    • Tammy Chan
    • Raquel Chapa
    • Dustinn Craig
    • Pernille D’Avolio
    • Carol and Clarence Foos
    • Cy Griffin
    • Ilka Hartmann
    • Dave Kemp
    • Shari Lampke
    • Shawn Lawlor
    • Tawnya Mosier
    • Albert Neiman
    • Peter Pelyaic
    • Bonnie Rowan
    • Michelle Vignes
    • Patrick Weakland
    • Jennifer Weston
    • Catherine and Harlington Wood
  • Very Special Thanks
    • Paul Berg
    • Lehman Brightman
    • Tony Bush
    • Ed Castillo
    • Beth Castle
    • Donald Fixico
    • Ellen Moves Camp
    • Bradley Patterson
  • Academic Advisors
    • Paul Chaat Smith
    • Robert Warrior
  • Series Advisors
    • Colin G. Calloway
    • R. David Edmunds
    • Donald Fixico
    • Louis P. Masur
    • Jean O’Brien
  • Creative Consultant
    • N. Bird Runningwater
  • FOR NAPT

    • Executive in Charge
    • Shirley K. Sneve
  • FOR AMERICAN EXPERIENCE

  • POST PRODUCTION
    • Vanessa Ezersky
    • Glenn Fukushima
    • Greg Shea
  • SERIES DESIGNER
    • Alison Kennedy
  • ON-LINE EDITOR
    • Spencer Gentry
  • SOUND MIX
    • John Jenkins
  • PRODUCTION MANAGER
    • Nancy Sherman
  • LEGAL
    • Jay Fialkov
    • Janice Flood
    • Maureen Jordan
    • Scott Kardel
  • PROJECT ADMINISTRATION
    • Andrew Bergner
    • Kelsey Dorwart
    • Susana Fernandes
    • Pamela Gaudiano
  • MARKETING AND COMMUNICATIONS
    • Laura Bowman
    • Jen Holmes
    • Patrick Ramirez
  • PROJECT MANAGER
    • Lauren Prestileo
  • MULTIMEDIA PRODUCERS
    • Angélica Allende Brisk
    • Tvli Jacob
    • Benjamen Walker
    • Callie T. Wiser
  • DIRECTOR OF NEW MEDIA
    • Maria Daniels
  • SENIOR EDITOR
    • Paul Taylor
  • SERIES PRODUCER
    • Susan Bellows
  • SERIES MANAGER
    • James E. Dunford
  • COORDINATING PRODUCER
    • Susan Mottau
  • EXECUTIVE PRODUCER
    • Mark Samels

A Firelight Media film for American Experience in association with

Native American Public Telecommunications.

©2008 WGBH Educational Foundation

All rights reserved.

Exclusive Corporate
Funding Provided by:
Liberty Mutual Insurance
Major Funding by:
Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
Additional Funding
Provided by:
American Experience