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Deep Time Source Credits

GEOLOGIC PERIOD OVERVIEWS
Hadean Era Overview - Inside the Solar Nebula
Painting © William K. Hartmann, Planetary Science Institute (http://www.psi.edu)

Archaean Era Overview - Stromatolites
Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution

Proterozoic Era Overview - Titan Geyser
© 2000 Don Dixon / Cosmographica.com

Proterozoic Era Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Cambrian Period Overview - Shelly Fauna Illustrations
© 1996 by Swanston Publishing Limited. Used by arrangement with Henry Holt and Company, LLC

Cambrian Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Ordovician Period Overview - Shelly Faunas
© 1996 Henry Holt and Company

Ordovician Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Silurian Period Overview - The Virtual Silurian Reef
Milwaukee Public Museum

Silurian Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Devonian Period Overview - Landscape, 360 Million Years Ago
American Museum of Natural History

Devonian Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Carboniferous Period Overview - Coal Forest
© 1996 by Swanston Publishing Limited. Used by arrangement with Henry Holt and Company, LLC

Carboniferous Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Permian Period Overview - Orthacanthus, attacking the tetrapod Eryops, in a small ox-bow lake
American Museum of Natural History Library

Permian Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Triassic Period Overview - Triassic Landscape, originally commissioned by The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
© 2000 by Karen Carr (http://www.karencarr.com)

Triassic Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Jurassic Period Overview - Jurassic Landscape, originally commissioned by The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
© 2000 by Karen Carr (http://www.karencarr.com)

Jurassic Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Cretaceous Period Overview - Cretaceous Coastal Environment, originally commissioned by The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
© 2000 by Karen Carr (http://www.karencarr.com)

Cretaceous Period Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Paleocene Epoch Overview - Glossotherium
Courtesy Ely Kish Studio

Eocene Epoch Overview - Landscape, 50 Million Years Ago
American Museum of Natural History Library

Eocene Epoch Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Oligocene Epoch Overview - Landscape, 32 Million Years Ago
American Museum of Natural History Library

Miocene Epoch Overview - Landscape, 10 Million Years Ago
American Museum of Natural History Library

Miocene Epoch Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Pliocene Epoch Overview - Cladosictis
Courtesy Ely Kish Studio

Pleistocene Epoch Overview - Woolly mammals, originally commissioned by The Sam Noble Oklahoma Museum of Natural History
© 2000 by Karen Carr http://www.karencarr.com

Pleistocene Epoch Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Holocene Epoch Overview - Oregon Rainforest
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Holocene Epoch Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

GEOLOGY
Birth of the Solar System - Super Nova
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Prelude to Life - Meteoric Rain
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Escaping Gases Build Early Atmosphere - Fire Fountains
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Meteorite Bombardment - Space Radar of Image Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad
NASA

Earth's Core Forms - Cutaway image
Courtesy, Chris Pelkie

Great Oceans Form - Heavy Rain
Don Farrall, Photodisc

Oldest Known Rocks - Sample from the Acasta River, Northwest Territories
© Dee Breger, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

Small Continents Form - Venus Surface
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Changing Face of the Planet - Volcanic Activity
Painting © William K. Hartmann Planetary Science Institute (http://www.psi.edu)

Continents Begin Shifting - Titanian Lake
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Banded Iron Formations - Sedimentary rock with rust-gray bands
Paul Genke, Pan Terra, Inc.

Air Apparent: The Oxygen Revolution - First Seas
© 2000 Don Dixon/Cosmographica.com

Oxidation Produces Red beds - Caprock Canyon State Park Red Beds
Photo: Vince Matthews, Colorado Geological Survey

Oxygen Levels Reach 3% - Mountains and Sky
Alex L. Fradkin, Photodisc

Rodinia Supercontinent Forms - Model of Earth, Rodinia Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Major Glaciation Period Begins - Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica
NASA

Breakup of Rodinia Supercontinent - Model of Earth, Rodinia Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Protective Ozone Layer in Place - The Earth's limb at sunset
NASA

Gondwana Forms - Model of Earth, Rodinia Map
Chris Scotese, The Paleomap Project (http://www.scotese.com)

Great Mountain Ranges Form - MISR Views: Delaware Bay, Chesapeake Bay, and the Appalachian Mountains
NASA

Oxygen Nears Present Day Level - Clouds
Robert Glusic, Photodisc

Carbon Sinks Form in Coal Forests - Coal forest
© 2001 St. Louis Science Center, All Rights Reserved

Drying Trend Begins - Uyuni Salt Flats, Bolivia
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Pangaea Starts to Break Apart - Map of Pangaea Separating
USGS

Tropical Climate Extends to Polar Regions - Model of Earth
The Museum of Science (www.mos.org)

Continents Near Present Day Position - Model of Earth
The Museum of Science (www.mos.org)

Drying and Cooling Trend Begins - Model of Earth
The Museum of Science (www.mos.org)

Short Term Warming and Drying - Sabal Palmetto Hammock
D. M. Jarzen, Florida Museum of Natural History

Great Mountain Building - Andes Peaks - Ampato Volcano, Peru October 1988
NASA

Inland Seas Dry Out - Alaskan Landscape
© 1997 Pieter van der Meulen

Crossing Over - Kobuk River Valley
Bob Barbee, National Park Service

Global Ice Age Begins - Woolly Mammoths
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

TRANSFORMATIONS
Evidence of Life - Rock at Akilia Island, Greenland
Photo from Allen Nutman, Australian National University

Evidence of Life - Undisturbed Volcanic Rock - Mineral
S. Mojzsis, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, Sponsored by NASA's Exobiology Program

Life's Origins - Nucleic Acids Inside a Cell's Nucleus
Chad Baker, Photodisc

Bacteria Diversify - Illustration of Single-Celled Organisms
Harnett/Hanzon, Photodisc

Photosynthesizing Bacteria - Cyanobacteria
Rolf Schauder (University of Frankfurt), Mark Schneegurt (Wichita State University), and Cyanosite (www-cyanosite.bio.purdue.edu)

Oldest Fossils - Stromatolites
© Paddy Ryan

First Eukaryote Traces - Microfossils from the Bitter Springs Formation, Australia
University Of California Museum of Paleontology

Bacteria on Land - Microbial Mat
American Museum of Natural History Library

Oldest Eukaryote Fossils - Acritarchs from the Ordovician Period
Helen Tappan Loeblich, UCLA Astrobiology Department

True Algae - Red Algae Close-Up
Morgan L. Vis, Ohio State University

Soft-Bodied Animals - Worm burrows in Chorhat Sandstone, Central India
Courtesy of the Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale University
http://www.yale.edu/ypmip/

The Riddle of Ediacara - Dickinsonia fossil
University Of California Museum of Paleontology

Hard Shelled Animals - Mineralized Ammonite fossil
Andrew Ward/Life File, Photodisc

Oldest Arthropod Fossils - Cambrian Trilobite fossil, Moducia typicalis
© James L. Amos/CORBIS

The Burgess Shale Site 505 Million Years Ago
Courtesy of the Smithsonian Institution

Chordates - Amphioxus (or Branchiostoma)
Lisa Pike, Francis Marion University

Marine Reefs - Devonian Reef
Royal Tyrrell Museum/Alberta Community Development

Land Plants - Green algae, Oogonia antheridia
University of Wisconsin, Madison's Botanical Image Collection

From Water to Land: The Green Invasion - Green Algae, Thomas Bay,Alaska
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Fishes - Dunkleosteus illustration
Royal Tyrrell Museum/Alberta Community Development

Sharks - Stethacanthus illustration
©1996 Ivy Rutzky

Vascular land plants - Cooksonia pertoni from the Upper Silurian Period, Shrewsbury, England
Courtesy Hans Steur

Arthropods on Land - Giant Sonoran Centipede
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Land Vertebrates - Eryops illustration
Merle H. Graffam

Water to Land: Fish Out of Water - Skeletal Comparison of an amphibian and a lobe-finned lungfish
Richard Cowan Ph.D.

Seed Plants - Leaf fossil
Albert J. Copley, Photodisc

Reptiles - Clark's Spiny Lizard
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Water to Land: Counting their Eggs - Amniote egg diagram
University of California Museum of Paleontology

Conifers - American Larch, Larix laricina
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Cycads - Australian Cycad Fronds
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Mammal-like Reptiles - Lystrosaurus
© John Sibbick

Dinosaurs - Dilophosaurus
Hemera Technologies, Inc.

Crocodiles - Caiman Crocodile
Digital Vision

Mammals - Reconstruction of Jeholodens jenkinsi, a triconodont mammal
Reconstruction Art: Mark A. Klingler / Carnegie Museum of Natural History

Divide and Conquer - Eocene Landscape
American Museum of Natural History Library

Flying Reptiles - Quetzalcoatlus
Courtesy Ely Kish Studio

Birds - Archaeopteryx fossil
© Ecoscene/CORBIS

Exaptation - Drawing of a feathered Dromaeosaur from Liaoning Province, China
Mick Ellison, American Museum of Natural History

Flowering Plants - Colorful Flower with Swallowtail Butterfly
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Primates - Lemur
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Rodents - Marmot, showing front teeth
© W. Perry Conway/CORBIS

Bats - Bat, with outstretched wings
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Whales - Early Whale, Ambulocetidae
Courtesy of Carl Buell

Return to the Sea - Mesonychian Skeleton
J. G. M. "Hans" Thewissen, Ph.D., (http://www.neoucom.edu/Depts/ANAT/Thewissen.html)

Return to the Sea - Ambulocetus natans skeleton
J. G. M. "Hans" Thewissen, Ph.D., (http://www.neoucom.edu/Depts/ANAT/Thewissen.html)

Return to the Sea - Zygorhiza kochii skeleton
J. G. M. "Hans" Thewissen, Ph.D., (http://www.neoucom.edu/Depts/ANAT/Thewissen.html)

Grasses - Savanna of Amboseli National Park, Kenya
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

Ape/Human Line Evolves - Skeletal Comparison of a human and a gorilla
J-M Labat/Auscape

Kelp Forests - California Kelp Forest
© Corbis

Grazing Horses - Neohipparion skeleton
Florida Museum of Natural History

Orangutan Line Separates from African Ape/Hominid Line - The Descent of Man
Drawing by Waterhouse Hawkins, from specimens in the museum of the Royal College of Surgeons

Chimpanzee and Hominid Lines Separate - Skulls: Chimp, Australopithecus afarensis, and Homo sapiens
© Institute of Human Origins

Hominds - Laetoli footprint, Laetoli, Tanzania
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Early Humans - Homo Heidelbergensis c. 500 - 200 Thousand Years Ago
Phillip L. Walker and Edward H. Hagen. Copyright © 2000 Regents of the University of California. Adapted by permission of W. W. Norton & Company, Inc. www.wwnorton.com

Modern Humans - Homo sapiens skull
© Corbis

EXTINCTIONS
Springing Forward, Falling Back - Biodiversity Through Time
Sepkoski JJ. 1993, Paleobiology 19:43-51

Selective Effect - Marine Rugose Corals
Milwaukee Public Museum

The Mother of All Extinctions - Volcano Erupting into the Sea
StockTrek, Photodisc

The Mother of all Extinctions - Asteroid
NASA

The Mother of all Extinctions - View of El'gygytgyn Lake
Julie Brigham-Grette, University of Massachusettes Geology Dept.

Opportunity Knocks - Shrews, Neosorex palustris
© 2000 http://www.arttoday.com

A Smoking Gun? - Lion Hunt, B.C. 4000-1500, Tassili N'Ajjer, Algeria
© Pierre Colombel/CORBIS
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