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Riddle of the Bones Source Credits

Opening animation:
12 frame grabs taken from Show 1 of NOVA: "In Search of Human Origins" (dramatization of Lucy's death)
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

Lucy art rendering based on Lucy photograph
© 1985 David L. Brill

Main Digs Page & What, How, Same Species rollovers:
Adult Mandible variation - Isolated teeth
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Heel Bone (Adult Calcaneus)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Lower Jaw
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

First Family Phalange
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Proximal radii
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Vertebra
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Upper Jaw
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Hadar skull *
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Lucy
Fossil Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Laetoli footprints *
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Rollovers - How Did They Move?
Heel Bone (Adult Calcaneus)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Heel Bone (Adult Calcaneus-2)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

First Family Phalanges - Toe Bones
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Enlarged detail of Lucy's upper arm bone
Fossil Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Lucy's pelvis as reconstructed by Owen Lovejoy
Artifact Credit: Dr. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State University
Copyright Protection notice: © 1994 by David L. Brill

Laetoli footprints (Detail)
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc

Rollovers - What Did They Look like?
Infant Mandible
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Isolated teeth
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Adult Mandible
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Hadar skull *
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Hadar skull (detail of lower jaw)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Lucy's reconstructed pelvis and human female pelvis
Artifact Credit: Dr. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State University
Copyright Protection notice: © 1994 by David L. Brill

Enlarged detail of Lucy's vertebrae
Fossil Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Enlarged detail of Lucy's lower jaw
Fossil Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Enlarged detail of single Laetoli footprint
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc

Are They the Same Species?
Adult Mandible
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Upper Jaw
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Hadar skull (detail of lower jaw)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Enlarged detail of Lucy's lower jaw
Fossil Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Enlarged detail of single Laetoli footprint
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc

Learn More Essay: How Did They Move?
Individual Lucy in motion
Artifact Credit: Dr. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State University
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Lucy in motion - series of seven
Artifact Credit: Dr. Owen Lovejoy, Kent State University
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Learn More Essay: What Did They Look Like?
"Lucy," as filmed for NOVA: "In Search of Human Origins"
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

A. afarensis walking, as filmed for NOVA: "In Search of Human Origins"
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

A. afarensis skull reconstructed in the mid 1980s
Artifact Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Original fragments used for reconstruction of A. afarensis skull
Artifact Credit: National Museum of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa
Copyright Protection notice: © 1985 by David L. Brill

Learn More Essay: Are They All the Same Species?
Map of Africa *
© 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation

Map of Africa (Detail)
© 2001 WGBH Educational Foundation

Reconstruction of an A. afarensis "couple," as filmed for NOVA: "In Search of Human Origins"
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

Learn More Essay: When Did They Live?
Laetoli prints of bird tracks (re-enactment), as filmed for NOVA: "In Search of Human Origins"
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

Geologists at Hadar sampling volcanic ash (detail) *
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

Geologists at Hadar sampling volcanic ash
© 1997 WGBH Educational Foundation

Images used in low-bandwidth feature but not in Flash feature.
Lucy Skeleton
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Arm Bone Detail
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Laetoli footprint
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

Hominids - Laetoli footprint, Laetoli, Tanzania
© John Reader/Photo Researchers, Inc.

* Image used in both low and high-bandwidth versions.

LOW BANDWIDTH VERSION
Adult Mandible variation - Isolated teeth
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Heel Bone (Adult Calcaneus)
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Lower Jaw
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

First Family Phalange
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Proximal radii
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Vertebra
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

Upper Jaw
© Institute of Human Origins
With the Permission of The Authority for Research and Conservation of Cultural Heritage (ARCCH) & The Ethiopian Government

* Image used in both low and high-bandwidth versions.
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