- The class will hold a mock summit of world leaders in an attempt to negotiate a settlement on several primary issues relating to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. As a class, discuss the issues that will be covered in the summit:
- Borders and settlements
- Each student or group of students should choose a world leader to research from the list provided. The list is divided into six groups, each with four leaders. Each group is organized by its location and/or political tendencies. Either make sure that all the leaders are covered or that there is at least some representation from each group or "faction."
- Yasser Arafat, leader of
- Hanan Ashrawi, Palestinian leader, former minister of education
- Sari Nusseibeh, Palestinian intellectual
- Maha Abu-Dayyeh Shamas, director of the Jerusalem Women's Center for Legal Aid and Counseling
- Abd al-Aziz al-Rantisi, leader of
- Ramadan Shallah, leader of
Palestinian Islamic Jihad
- Marwan Barghouti, lieutenant of Yasser Arafat
- Sheikh Ahmad Yasin, spiritual leader of Hamas
- Shimon Peres, current foreign minister of Israel
- Ehud Barak, former prime minister of Israel
- Tzali Reshef, leader of
- Terry Greenblatt, director of
- Ariel Sharon, current prime minister of Israel
- Benjamin Netanyahu, former prime minister of Israel
- Rabbi Shlomo Aviner, a leader of
- Eli Yishai, leader of
- George W. Bush, current president of the United States
- Colin Powell, current U.S. secretary of state
- Bill Clinton, former president of the United States
- Edward Said, Palestinian-American intellectual
- King Abdullah of Jordan
- Bashar al-Asad, president of Syria
- Hosni Mubarak, president of Egypt
- Crown Prince Abdullah of Saudi Arabia
- Distribute copies of the summary of the Palestinian-Israeli conflict as background. Additional sources to use for research are provided in the Resources section. If Lesson 2: A Meeting of World Leaders has already been done in class, this can serve as a review.
- Using their research on their assigned character, students will write a policy paper of three to four pages. Each paper should include the following:
- The character's background and position(s) of leadership
- His or her approach to an Israeli-Palestinian peace process
- A delineation of the character's values and interests/goals, including answers to the following questions:
- What are the character's most dearly held conditions for peace?
- Where would the leader be willing to compromise or trade off on issues?
(Note: Certain characters would not, in all likelihood, even attend a summit meeting. Students should note this in their research, but participate in the summit nevertheless.)
- Students will break into factions (e.g., moderate Palestinians, extremist Israelis, etc.) to discuss for approximately 20 minutes their approach as a delegation to the peace process.
- Members of each faction should also decide which members will be on which issue committee (i.e., borders and settlements, security, refugees, and Jerusalem).
- Students will then split into issue committees. Members of each committee will try to come to an agreement on their issue. They should keep in mind the character they play and the position of their factional delegation as they negotiate. If one member of a committee refuses to accept an agreement accepted by all other members, the committee may move forward, but members should recognize the possible consequences.
- Each issues committee should also appoint one member to serve on a final status/packaging committee.
- After all the issue committees have met, the packaging/final status committee will try to resolve any outstanding issues. Members of their committees and delegations will sit behind the packaging committee and may, if asked, confer on ideas and opinions as the committee attempts to come to a final resolution.
- Each student will write a short reaction piece detailing his or her reaction to the peace summit and what they think will happen as a result. If any members of an issue committee refused to accept an agreement, students should note possible consequences.
- A final debriefing discussion in class will allow students to present their proposed solution, if one was achieved. If they had problems reaching a consensus or were unable to do so, they should indicate this and explain why.
- Was the student able to extrapolate information from a variety of sources to craft a logically argued position paper from their character's point of view?
- To what extent did the student actively participate in the summit, staying in role, presenting effective arguments, and respecting others' positions and creative thinking?
Global Connections Essays:
- Culture: A Rich Mosaic
Culture, a shared set of traditions, belief systems, and behaviors, is shaped by history, religion, ethnic identity, language, and nationality, among other factors. The Middle East consists of approximately 20 countries, with many different religions and a variety of ethnic and linguistic groups.
- Economics: It's More Than Oil
National economies throughout the Middle East struggled in the 19th and 20th centuries to develop their natural and human resources, to modernize their societies, and to raise their standards of living.
How were the modern nation-states of the Middle East created?
- Politics: From Royalty to Democracy
Politics in the Middle East, far from being solely an issue of Islamic resurgence as is often presented by Western media, actually reflects a complex mixture of issues that include nationalism, religion, social and economic concerns, anti-colonialist sentiments, tribal loyalties, and ethnic identities.
- U.S. Foreign Policy
What have been the role and effects of U.S. foreign policies and actions in the Middle East?
- Battle for the Holy Land
With Israelis and Palestinians in an escalating war, Frontline goes behind the lines and underground to reveal the tactics and strategies that led to the current violence.
- The World Factbook 2001
The Central Intelligence Agency publishes information on the geography, people, government, and economy of each Middle Eastern country.
- The Saudi Initiative
What is the Saudi initiative, and how will it end violence and bring peace?
- Biographies of the Middle East
MERIA's guide provides a basis for exploring Internet biographies of leading figures in the Middle East.
- Middle East Conflicts: Biographies
Biographies of individuals involved in the Middle East conflict
- Morning Edition Online
Morning Edition is a two-hour mix of news, analysis, interviews, commentaries, arts, features, and music.
- NOW with Bill Moyers
Bill Moyers anchors an hour-long weekly news series offering fresh perspectives and analysis on today's events, issues, and the ideas that are shaping our world.
- Online NewsHour
NewsHour is the nation's first and only hour-long nightly broadcast of national news.
- Workable Peace Web Site
Workable Peace teaches young people and educators to manage conflict between groups.
- Ha'aretz Online
Founded in 1919 by Zionist immigrants, Ha'aretz is a daily newspaper with a broadly liberal outlook on domestic and international affairs.
- New York Times Online
The Web site for the New York Times newspaper, with articles updated throughout the day
- Christian Science Monitor Online
Church ownership and a public-service mission give the Christian Science Monitor a unique journalistic voice.
- Washington Post Online
A daily newspaper with headquarters in Washington, D.C.
- The Wall Street Journal Online
A daily newspaper focusing on business and the economy
- The Guardian Online
The biggest newspaper Web site in the UK
- Al-Ahram Weekly Online
A weekly news publication from Egypt
- Middle East Times Online
A weekly source for news and independent analysis of politics, sports, business, religion, and culture in the Middle East
- The Daily Star Online
Lebanese news coverage of local and regional politics, business, and features
- The Jordan Times Online
An Arab political daily published in Amman by the Jordan Press Foundation
- Looking for Answers
Frontline asks, what explains the hatred behind the worst terrorist attack in U.S. history? And why has radical Islam sprung from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, two of America's key allies in the Middle East?
Frontline examines Islam's worldwide resurgence through the story of diverse Muslims struggling to fit Islam into their lives.
- Target America
As the Bush White House weighs its options, Frontline identifies the lessons we have learned from America's first "war on terrorism" in the 1980s.
- Hunting Bin Laden
Investigating Osama bin Laden, his network, and his role in terrorists attacks on America (pre-9/11)
- Video Palestine - A Unifying Symbol?
Dr. Laila Parsons
Dr. Parsons describes the limitations of the "struggle for Palestine" as a unifying symbol for Arab nations and extremists.
- Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land
A review of the film, Arab and Jew: Wounded Spirits in a Promised Land, a film about the issues faced by Israelis and Palestinians and the land in which they seek to live
- Bethlehem Diary
A review of Bethlehem Diary, a film that focuses on two Palestinian families and an Israeli human rights lawyer during this tumultuous period
- The Road to Peace: Israelis and Palestinians
A review of The Road to Peace: Israelis and Palestinians, a film that demonstrates how peace is perceived and lived by ordinary people
- Oasis of Peace
A review of Oasis of Peace, a film about a village in Israel where Jews and Palestinians -- all Israeli citizens -- have been living as equals since 1978.
- Waiting for Saladin
A review of Waiting for Saladin, an ensemble, documentary portrait of Palestinian inhabitants of East Jerusalem who live under Israeli rule
- AbuKhalil, As'ad. Historical Dictionary of Lebanon, Asian/Oceanic Historical Dictionaries #30.
Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 1998.
- Goldschmidt, Arthur, Jr. Biographical Dictionary of Modern Egypt.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 200.
- Global Connections. Changing Circumstances, Changing U.S. Foreign Policy
U.S. foreign policy shifts over time and location.
- Global Connections. From Coup to Revolution: U.S. Foreign Policy in Iran
Domestic, international, and economic concerns shape U.S. policy in Iran.
- Global Connections. A Meeting of World Leaders
World leaders consider Israeli-Palestinian peace.
- Understanding History, Religion, and Politics in Jerusalem and Beyond
Students will acquire historical knowledge of the conflict between Israelis and Palestinians in the region, learn how to interpret a conflict from multiple perspectives, advocate for a point of view, and develop greater conflict resolution skills.
- Prospects for Peace in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Students will examine the root causes of the Israeli-Palestinian crisis and analyze past and present attempts at peace.
- Workable Peace Curriculum
The Workable Peace curriculum integrates the study of intergroup conflict and the development of critical-thinking, problem-solving, and perspective-taking skills into social studies and humanities content.
Workable Peace offers a secondary-school curriculum that expands the activities presented in this lesson.
Time, continuity, and change
- Systematically employ processes of critical historical inquiry to reconstruct and reinterpret the past such as using a variety of sources and checking their credibility, validating and weighing evidence for claims, and searching for causality.
- Investigate, interpret, and analyze multiple historical and contemporary viewpoints within and across cultures related to important events, recurring dilemmas, and persistent issues while employing empathy, skepticism, and critical judgment.
- Apply ideas, theories, and modes of historical inquiry to analyze historical and contemporary developments and to inform and evaluate actions concerning public policy issues.
Civic ideals and practices
- Locate, access, analyze, organize, synthesize, evaluate, and apply information about selected public issues -- identifying, describing, and evaluating multiple points of view.
Power, authority, and governance
- Explain and apply ideas, theories, and modes of inquiry drawn from political science to the examination of persistent issues and social problems.
For more information, see the
National Standards for Social Studies Teachers, Volume I.