That same month also saw two near-disastrous attempts by rival teams—also
covered by NOVA; one headed by Virgin Atlantic tycoon and balloonist Richard
Branson, the other by a European duo backed by the Breitling watch company.
Undaunted, all teams are planning to launch again this winter, the prime season
for catching jet stream winds that circle the northern hemisphere. Only Fossett
is flying solo on the estimated two to three week trip.
In addition, three other teams have announced their plans to join the race,
including a team who will make their attempt from Australia, ascending to an
altitude of 130,000 feet. In all, six teams are scheduled for attempts in
either December 1997 or January 1998.
The initial long-shot underdog, Fossett's persistence and low-budget,
incremental approach took him one-tenth of the way around the planet on his
trouble-plagued first flight in 1996, nearly half way around on his impressive
1997 attempt, and makes him the odds-on favorite to go all the way this time.
And if he doesn't, he's sure to try again. Fossett recently briefed NOVA on his
past, present, and future adventures from his Colorado ski home.
NOVA: When do you launch?
FOSSETT: Probably this January, with a small possibility of a launch in the last half of
NOVA: Given the close calls that you and your competitors have had, do you
consider this a high-risk endeavor?
FOSSETT: Yes, it is a dangerous sport. In recent years we've done distance ballooning
safely, by and large. But in the 'seventies many people were lost trying to
make the first flight over the Atlantic.
NOVA: Why were there so many fatalities then?
FOSSETT: They didn't understand the meteorology very well back then. We're far more
sophisticated in predicting our flight paths now. They were also flying gas
balloons, which have some problems. But we're not immune to the danger with the
equipment we're now flying. Richard Branson had a rather desperate situation
this last year. It's still dangerous.
NOVA: What improvements in ballooning have made these long-distance attempts
FOSSETT: It's the invention of the Rozière balloon in the early 'eighties by
Donald Cameron that makes it possible to stay up long enough to go around the
world, which hot air or gas balloons can't really do. A hot air balloon
requires a great deal of fuel to keep it aloft, so that you can't fly it even
for one day. A gas balloon, which usually uses helium, has the problem that the
helium cools at night when the sun is not on it, and you have to throw ballast
overboard to keep it from going to the surface. The next day, when the balloon
warms as the sun comes up again, it actually starts to fly too high, and you
have to valve out helium. Practically speaking you can't make a gas balloon big
enough to do that cycle for more than about five days, and an around-the-world
flight could take up to three weeks. The Rozière is basically a gas
balloon, but instead of ballast we carry fuel and a hot air burner to warm the
helium at night, which is much more efficient than carrying ballast.
NOVA: What's different about your balloon this time?
FOSSETT: My balloon is twenty-eight percent larger, which enables me to carry fifty
percent more fuel. Last year the reason I had to land was that I didn't have
sufficient fuel to make it across the Pacific, and I chose to land in India.
This new configuration allows me to carry a buffer of fuel, so that there won't
be any question about having enough.
NOVA: Are you shooting for the same altitude range as last time?
FOSSETT: No, I'll fly a little bit higher. My initial altitude will be 20,000 feet,
instead of 18,000 last year, although my eventual cruising altitude is likely
to be the same, which is 24,000.
NOVA: You'll be using oxygen?
FOSSETT: I have full time oxygen available to me by mask. Last year I only had to use it
half the time in the early days of the flight, until I got more adjusted to
NOVA: I don't know how you felt at the end of the last flight but you looked like
you'd just gotten off of Apollo 13.
FOSSETT: Yes, I was very tired. I got two hours of sleep a day, which is not enough,
although four hours would be sufficient. In order to get more sleep this time
I'm going to try to reduce the amount of air-traffic control communication that
I have to do, so that I'm not constantly on the radio.
NOVA: Your last flight lasted a little over six days. Do you think you can handle
a three-week flight?
FOSSETT: Yes, I'll be capable of staying aloft for twenty-two days. Just a year ago
August I sailed across the Pacific alone. That took twenty days and nine hours.
That was, in fact, the solo record for sailing across the Pacific. I've also
sailed across the Atlantic solo. So I've been exposed to these kinds of
psychological problems before.
NOVA: Can you think clearly when you've been going for days?
FOSSETT: So far I have, I've made good decisions. But there's a risk of making judgment
errors because of fatigue or because of the altitude effects. At one point on
my last flight my team thought that I wasn't very coherent—or suspected I
wasn't fully aware of the situation.
NOVA: At what point was that?
FOSSETT: That was soon after leaving Libya, over Sudan. But that was dispelled right
away when I laid out a whole new set of objectives for the flight, and they
immediately recognized that I was still up there working and thinking.
NOVA: What do you see as the biggest danger?
FOSSETT: I think the shoot-down risk is the biggest danger. It was just two years ago in
a balloon race when two American balloonists were shot down and killed in
Belarus. In fact, they had permission to fly over the country but the military
base over which they were flying wasn't aware that they had permission.
NOVA: What route will you take?
FOSSETT: The alternatives, depending on the weather, will be first, the northern course,
which would take me from the United States, up to southern England, then over
to south of Moscow, Kazakhstan, China, to southern Japan—or the southern
route, which I took last time, which was straight across northern Africa and
India in order to get to southern Japan. But southern Japan is where I want to
be when I start across the Pacific.
NOVA: Why is that?
FOSSETT: That's just where the wind stream is proper, so that I won't get stalled while
midway across the Pacific.
NOVA: If you do end up going over Libya, as you did last time, have you been able
to line up permission in advance?
FOSSETT: I think the fact that Libya granted permission last year, finally, makes it
more likely that they'll grant permission in advance this year, although I
don't have it yet.
NOVA: Since you could end up anywhere in the northern hemisphere, do you carry
maps for the entire northern half of the world?
FOSSETT: Yes, about twenty pounds of aeronautical charts altogether.
NOVA: Someone in the NOVA program mentioned that you take War and Peace. Is that a
FOSSETT: Must have been a joke. I do have some books, but in all the distance flights
I've made I've never opened the books. I've been too busy.
NOVA: Do you have time to be a tourist?
FOSSETT: Oh, yes, and it's fascinating. Last time I flew right over Cape Hatteras. That
night I flew directly over Hamilton, Bermuda, which is an interesting sight
because it looks like a regular city except you're out in the middle of the
Atlantic. We flew over Gibraltar. When I went down through Algeria I flew
across the sand dunes of the Sahara which are vast and trackless; there are no
dirt roads like in deserts you fly over in the United States. I went directly
over the Aswan Dam, and directly over the Strait of Hormuz. So the sights are
NOVA: What is the pleasure you get from one of these extremely strenuous, lonely
FOSSETT: I'm not doing it for the pleasure. This is an endeavor. It's something that
hasn't been done. And it's an opportunity to earn a place in aviation history.
NOVA: When you make this around the world balloon flight, what's next for
FOSSETT: I've given a lot of thought about what to do in the future. I have a lot of
ideas. Probably the next that I'll work on is sailing around the world for the
NOVA: I understand you've climbed the highest mountains on six of the seven
continents. Mount Everest would make it seven out of seven. Are you going to go
FOSSETT: No, that's off my list. I've been on two expeditions and don't plan to go back.
I was never comfortable with the risk of climbing in the Himalayas, or the
amount of time in idleness that is involved in the Everest expedition.
NOVA: Is long-distance balloon flying any safer?
FOSSETT: No, I wouldn't say that balloons are necessarily safer than Himalayan mountain
climbing. They're both dangerous sports. I finally decided that Everest wasn't
NOVA: Do you ever feel like Lindbergh? He had a similar approach to yours.
FOSSETT: I suppose there are a lot of parallels. I've chosen my way of doing this
because I think it's the best way for me to do it. But the parallels are
apparent—from taking less-complex equipment, which proved to be more reliable,
to flying solo.
NOVA: Good luck, I hope you make it.
FOSSETT: I hope so, then I don't have to try again.
NOVA: There'll be ticker tape parade at the end of it I'm sure.