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Iran Primer: Timeline of U.S. Sanctions

by JASON STARR

02 Nov 2010 18:292 Comments

Since 2005, the United States has designated Iranian individuals, companies and organizations for involvement in nuclear proliferation, ballistic missile development, or support for terrorist groups. These designations have been made under two presidential executive orders:

  • Executive Order 13224 was issued on Sept. 23, 2001. It applies to individuals or entities accused of supporting terrorism.
  • Executive Order 13382 was issued on June 28, 2005. It applies to individuals or entities accused of supporting Iran's nuclear proliferation and missile-related activities.

June 28, 2005 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Military for involvement in Iran's ballistic missile development
  • Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO)
  • Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group
  • Shahid Bakeri Industrial Group
  • Nuclear for operating Iran's nuclear facilities
  • Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI)

January 4, 2006 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Nuclear
  • Novin Energy Company: Transferred millions of dollars on behalf the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) to entities associated with Iran's nuclear program.
  • Mesbah Energy Company: AEOI Subordinate and procurer for Iran's heavy water project.

July 18, 2006 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, and Technology
  • Sanam Industrial Group: Subordinate of Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO). Purchased millions of dollars worth of equipment from entities associated with missile proliferation.
  • Ya Mahdi Industries Group: Subordinate of Iran's AIO. Made international purchases of missile-related technology and goods for Iran.

January 9, 2007 (Executive Order 13882)

  • Banks
  • Bank Sepah/Bank Sepah International Plc (UK): State-owned bank. U.S. Treasury alleges Bank Sepah provides support to entities affiliated with Iran's nuclear program.
  • Individuals
  • Ahmad Derakhshandeh: Chairman and Director of Bank Sepah.

February 16, 2007 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Kalaye Electric Company: Affiliated with centrifuge research and development through the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI).
  • Kavoshyar Company: Wholly-owned by AEOI.
  • Pioneer Energy Industries Company: Provides technical support services to AEOI.

March 30, 2007 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Military
  • Defense Industries Organization (DIO): Controlled by Iran's Ministry of Defense Armed Forces Logistics. Involved in Iran's nuclear and missiles programs.

June 8, 2007 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Pars Tarash (Pars Trash Co.): Affiliated with the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI).
  • Farayand Technique: Affiliated with the AEOI
  • Fajr Industries Group (Industrial Factories of Precision Machinery): Affiliated with Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO).
  • Mizan Machine Manufacturing Group: Affiliated with AIO.

June 15, 2007 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Individuals
  • Ali Hajinia Leilabadi: Agent of Mesbah Energy Company. Involved in Iran's heavy water development.
  • Mohammad Qannadi: Agent of the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran.

October 25, 2007

  • Banks
  • Bank Melli Iran (Executive Order 13382): Iran's largest bank. Provides services to entities involved in nuclear and ballistic missile programs, Revolutionary Guards (IRGC) and Qods Force.
  • Bank Mellat (Executive Order 13382): provides banking services to the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) and Novin Energy Company.
  • Bank Saderat Iran (Executive Order 13224): Has approximately 3,200 branch offices. U.S. Treasury alleges Iranian Government uses the bank to channel funds to terrorist organizations.
  • Petroleum and Petrochemicals (Executive Order 13382)
  • Oriental Oil Kish: Owned or controlled by the IRGC.
  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology (Executive Order 13382)
  • Khatam al-Anbya Construction Headquarters: Engineering arm of IRGC. Involved in construction of streets, highways, tunnels, water conveyance projects, agricultural restoration projects, and pipelines.
  • Ghorb Nooh: Owned or controlled by the IRGC or its leaders. Affiliate of Khatam al-Anbya.
  • Sahel Consultant Engineering: Owned or controlled by IRGC.
  • Ghorb-e Karbala: Owned or controlled by IRGC.
  • Sepasad Engineering Co.: Owned or controlled by IRGC. Specializes in earth and concrete dam construction, road construction, and tunneling.
  • Omran Sahel: Owned or controlled by IRGC.
  • Hara Company: Owned or controlled by IRGC. Reportedly building a tunnel facility in northeast Tehran for use in nuclear weapons research and development.
  • Gharargahe Sazandegi Ghaem: Owned or controlled by IRGC.
  • Military (Executive Order 13382)
  • Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC): Elite branch of Iran's military. Involved in nuclear and ballistic missiles programs.
  • Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL): Iran's ministry of defense. It has ultimate authority over Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO). AIO was designated on June 28, 2005.
  • IRGC-Qods Force (Executive Order 13224): Branch of IRGC. The United States alleges that Qods Force provides material support to terrorist organizations.
  • Individuals (Executive Order 13382)
  • Ahmad Vahid Dastjerdi, Head of Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO).
  • Bahmanyar Morteza Bahmanyar: Head of Finance & Budget Department, AIO
  • Reza-Gholi Esmaeli, Head of Trade and International Affairs Dept., AIO
  • General Hosein Salimi, Commander of the Air Force, IRGC
  • Brigadier General Morteza Rezaie, Deputy Commander of the IRGC
  • Vice Admiral Ali Akhbar Ahmadian, then Chief of IRGC Joint Staff
  • Brigadier Gen. Mohammad Hejazi, then Commander of Basij resistance force, IRGC
  • Brigadier General Qasem Soleimani, Commander of the Qods Force, IRGC

March 12, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Banks
  • Future Bank, B.S.C.: Investment bank operating in Iran and Persian Gulf States. Joint venture of Bank Saderat Iran, Bank Melli Iran, and Ahli United Bank (Bahrain) with branches and in Bahrain and a representative office in Tehran.

July 8, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Parchin Chemical Industries: Imports and exports chemical goods throughout the world as a subsidiary of Iran's Defense Industries Organization (DIO). DIO was designated on March 30, 2007.
  • 7th of Tir: DIO subsidiary involved in Iran's nuclear centrifuge development program.
  • Ammunition and Metallurgy Industries Group: DIO subsidiary and parent of 7th of Tir.
  • Shahid Sattari Industries: Manufacturing and maintains ground support equipment for Shahid Bakeri Industries Group (SBIG). SBIG was designated on June 28, 2005 for its role in Iran's missile program.
  • TAMAS Company.
  • Individuals
  • Dawood Agha-Jani: Affiliated with the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI). Head of Pilot Fuel Enrichment Plant at Natanz, Iran's main uranium enrichment facility.
  • Mohsen Fakhrizadeh-Mahabadi: Director of nuclear program at Iran's Center for Readiness and New Defense Technology and former head of Iran's Physics Research Center.
  • Moshen Hojati: Affiliated with Aerospace Industries Organization (AIO), the overall manager of Iran's missile program.
  • Mehrdada Akhlaghi Ketabachi: Head of SBIG.
  • Naser Maleki: Oversees work on the Shahab-3 ballistic missile program. Head of Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG). SHIG was designated on June 28, 2005 for its role in Iran's ballistic missile program.
  • General Yahya Rahim-Safavi: Armed forces advisor to Ayatollah Khamenei and former IRGC commander.

August 12, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Nuclear
  • Esfahan Nuclear Fuel Research and Production Center: Uranium fuel conversion facility for the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI).
  • Jabber Ibn Hayan: Performs nuclear research, development, and laboratory services on the nuclear fuel cycle for the AEOI.
  • Nuclear Research Center for Agriculture and Medicine: Research component of AEOI.
  • Joza Industrial Company: Procurement front company for Shahid Hemmat Industrial Group (SHIG). SHIG was designated on June 28, 2005.
  • Safety Equipment Procurement Company (SEP Co.): Procurement front company for Aerospace Industries Organization of Iran (AIO).

September 10, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Shipping
  • Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL): State-owned shipping company. Transports sanctioned missile-related and proliferation-related military cargo for Iran's government.
  • Asia Marine Network PTE (IRISL Asia PTE) Ltd./CISCO Shipping Co. Ltd. (IRISL Korea Co. Ltd.)/ Iran o Hind Shipping Company/ Iran o Misr Shipping Company/Irinivestship, Ltd./IRISL Benelux NV/IRISL China Shipping Co., Ltd./IRISL Europe GMbH/IRISL (Malta) Limited/IRISL Marine Services & Engineering Company/IRISL Multimodal Transport Co./IRISL (UK) Ltd./IRITAL Shipping SRL Company/ Khazar Sea Shipping Lines/South Shipping Line Iran/ Shipping Computer Services Company/ Valfajr 8th Shipping Line Co. SSK: Foreign and domestic subsidiaries of IRISL.
  • Oasis Freight Agencies: Joint venture between IRISL and Sharaf Shipping Company (UAE).

September 17, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Armament Industries Group: Manufactures weapons and weapons systems. Subsidiary of Iran's Defense Industries Organization (DIO).
  • Iran Aircraft Manufacturing Industrial Company (HESA): Aircraft manufacturing and assembly company. Provides support to IRGC. Owned or controlled by Iran's Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL). MODAFL was designated on October 25, 2007.
  • Farasakht Industries: HESA subsidiary. Manufactures aerospace tools and designed aeronautical equipment.
  • Iran Electronics Industries (IEI): Wholly-owned subsidiary of MODAFL. Largest manufacturer of electronic and communication equipment in Iran. Manufactures components for Iranian weapons systems.
  • Iran Communications Industries : IEI subsidiary. Procurement company owned or controlled by MODAFL.
  • Shiraz Electronics Industries : IEI subsidiary. Produces radars, electronic equipment for military.

October 22, 2008 (Executive Order 13882)

  • Banks
  • Export Development Bank of Iran (EDBI): Provides financial services to Iran's Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics (MODAFL).
  • Banco Internacional de Desarrollo, C.A.: Venezuela-based bank owned or controlled by EDBI.
  • EDBI Exchange Company/EDBI Stock Brokerage Company: Owned or controlled by EDBI.

December 17, 2008 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Banks
  • ASSA Co. Ltd./ASSA Corporation: Controlled by Bank Melli. Established as shell companies for Bank Melli to disguise the bank's 40 percent ownership interest in the 650 Fifth Avenue Company in New York City. ASSA Corp. the subsidiary of ASSA Co. Ltd.

March 3, 2009 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Banks
  • Bank Melli Iran Investment Company/BMIIC International General Trading Co.: Owned or controlled by Bank Melli, designated October 25, 2007 for providing services to entities linked to Iran's nuclear program.
  • Bank Melli Printing and Publishing Co.: Owned or controlled by Bank Melli. Responsible for printing for domestic branches of Bank Melli.
  • First Persian Equity Fund: Owned or controlled by Melli Investment Holding International (MEHR) and Bank Melli Iran Investment Company (BMIIC).
  • MEHR Cayman Ltd.: Cayman Islands-based. Owned or controlled by MEHR and BMIIC.
  • Melli Investment Holding International: Dubai-based. Wholly-owned by BMIIC.
  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology (Executive Order 13382)
  • Cement Investment and Development Co. (CIDCO): Owned or controlled by BMIIC. Founded to manage BMIIC's holdings in cement industry in 2004.
  • Mazandaran Cement Company: Owned or controlled by CIDCO.
  • Mazandaran Textile Company: Owned or controlled by BMIIC.
  • Melli Agrochemical Company PJS: Pesticide company established in 1986. Owned or controlled by BMIIC.
  • Shomal Cement Company: Owned or controlled by CIDCO.

April 7, 2009 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Amin Industrial Complex: Owned or controlled by Defense Industries Organization (DIO). DIO was designated on March 30, 2007.
  • Kaveh Cutting Tools Company: Owned or controlled by DIO. Produces centrifuge components for Iran's nuclear centrifuge program.
  • Khorasan Metallurgy Industries: Owned or controlled by DIO. Subsidiary of Ammunition Industries Group. Produces centrifuge components.
  • Niru Battery Manufacturing Company: DIO subsidiary. Manufactures power units for Iranian missile systems.
  • Shahid Sayyade Shirazi Industries: Produces large caliber items and cartridge cases. Produces components for improvised explosive devices (IEDs).
  • Yazd Metallurgy Industries: Ammunition Industries Group (AMIG ) subsidiary owned or controlled by DIO.

November 5, 2009 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Banks
  • First East Export Bank, P.L.C.: Malaysian subsidiary of Bank Mellat. Bank Mellat was designated on October 25, 2007 for providing financial services for Iran's nuclear program.
  • Individuals
  • Ali Divandari: Chairman of Bank Mellat.

February 10, 2010 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Fater Engineering Institute: Subsidiary of Khatam al-Anbya Construction Headquarters, the engineering arm of the IRGC.
  • Imensazen Consultant Engineers Institute: Subsidiary of Khatam al-Anbya. Supports IRGC mining and engineering projects.
  • Makin Institute: Subsidiary of Khatam al-Anbya. Supports IRGC mining and engineering projects.
  • Rahab Institute: Subsidiary of Khatam al-Anbya. Supports IRGC mining and engineering projects.
  • Individuals
  • General Rostam Qasemi: IRGC General. Commander of Khatam al-Anbya Construction Headquarters.

June 16, 2010 (Executive Order 13382)

  • Shipping
  • Hafiz Darya Shipping Co.: Islamic Republic of Iran Shipping Lines (IRISL) front company. Used for IRISL containerized shipping operations beginning in 2009.
  • Safiran Payan Darya Shipping: IRISL front company. Used for IRISL bulk and cargo operations beginning in April 2009.
  • Soroush Sarzamin Asatir Ship Management Co.: IRISL front company. Performs ship management for IRISL.
  • Seibow Limited/Seibow Logistics Limited: Hong Kong-based IRISL front companies.
  • Military
  • IRGC Air Force: In charge of deployment and operations of Iran's ballistic missile program.
  • IRGC Missile Command: In charge of deployment and operations of Iran's ballistic missile program.
  • Naval Defense Missile Industry Group: Owned or controlled by AIO.
  • Individuals
  • Mohammad Ali Jafari: Commander-in-Chief, IRGC since September 2007.
  • Javedan Mehr Toos: Procurement broker for Kalaye Electric Co. Kalaye was designated on February 16, 2007 for its affiliation with Iran's nuclear program.
  • Mohammad Reza Naqdi: Head of IRGC Basij Resistance Force since October 2009.
  • Javad Karimi Sabet: Affiliated with the AEOI as head of Novin Energy Company.
  • Ahmad Vahidi: Iran's Minister of Defense and Armed Forces Logistics since September 2009.
  • Banks
  • Post Bank: Provides financial services to Bank Sepah and acts on its behalf. Bank Sepah was designated on January 9, 2007 for providing services to Iran's nuclear program.
  • Construction, Engineering, Industry and Technology
  • Rah Sahel Institute: Owned or controlled by Khatam al-Anbya. Khatam al-Anbya was designated on October 25, 2007 for its affiliation with the IRGC. Rah Sahel has served as a contractor for Iran's natural gas plant project in Tombak.
  • Sepanir Oil and Gas Engineering Co.: Owned or controlled by Khatam al-Anbya. Sepanir is a major contractor for Iran's petroleum industry.

August 3, 2010 (Executive Order 13224)

  • Organizations Supporting Terrorist Organizations
  • Iranian Committee for the Reconstruction of Lebanon: Channels Iranian material and financial support for Hezbollah.
  • Imam Khomeini Relief Committee (IKRC) Lebanon Branch: Helped fund Hezbollah youth training camps to recruit future Hezbollah members and operatives. Hezbollah leaders acknowledge IKRC is funded by Iran.
  • Individuals
  • Hushang Allahdad: IRGC-Qods Force financial officer. Oversees distribution of funds to Hezbollah, Hamas and Palestinian Islamic Jihad.
  • Hossein Musavi: Qods Force General and Commander of Ansar Corps. Provides financial and material support to the Taliban.
  • Hasan Mortezavi: Qods Force Colonel. Provides financial and material support to the Taliban.
  • Mohammad Reza Zahedi: Qods Force commander in Lebanon. Acted as liaison to Hezbollah and Syrian intelligence services.
  • Hessam Khoshnevis: Director of the Iranian Committee for the Reconstruction of Lebanon. Provides financial, material, and technological support to Hezbollah.
  • Ali Zuraik: Director of the Imam Khomeini Relief Committee Lebanon branch. Provides financial and material support to Hezbollah.
  • Razi Musavi: Syria-based Iranian official. Provides financial and material support to Hezbollah.

Jason Starr, a former research assistant at the U.S. Institute of Peace, is currently a presidential management fellow at the U.S. Department of State. This article is presented by Tehran Bureau, the U.S. Institute of Peace, and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars as part of the Iran project at iranprimer.usip.org.

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2 Comments

Can we have a list of officials in the US govt who are in the pockets of the Israeli lobby and who are responsible for much of the US regime's anti-Iran policy for over a decade now.
Apart from the Israeli factor, there are many areas of strategic co-operation particularly in Iraq and Afghanistan on which the US and Iran are capable of working together.

Rezvan / November 3, 2010 12:04 AM

To add to my earlier comments. 2 other factors come in mind - I) it was actually the US who originally helped establish Iran's nuclear program under the 'atoms for peace' programme in the 50s. There is no reason why, as Russia has done at Bushehr, that the US could not get involved as AN has often suggested to his credit. This would give the US an opportunity to bring Iran back into its sphere of influence. The only losers to this approach would be the hardliners in Washington, Tel Aviv and Tehran who are desperate to spoil for a fight to have their moment of glory at everybody else's expense.
2) There is a much more natural affinity at popular level between Iranians
and Americans. They are both at heart 'religious' nations unlike the Russians and Chinese.

TB, whilst pointing out abuses in Iran and giving currency to the 'reform' movement, should examine closely at the individuals in the US regime who by adopting a hardline approach towards IRI are actually preventing reform there And undermining Long term US interests in the region. Trends in the region actually show Iran's power and influence in ascendancy and that of Israel, for no other reason than demography, as being in decline.

Rezvan / November 3, 2010 5:55 PM