Daring to Resist

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Shula as a teenager

Shula as a teenager
Shula as a teenager

"I was taught by my father to be very proud and not let anyone insult me. The other kids respected me for standing up for myself, regardless of what they thought of my being Jewish."

Born: Budapest, Hungary, 1924

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Family Background
Shula’s parents were highly educated and assimilated Jews in Hungary — "very proud Jews who considered Judaism their tradition, and Hungarian their nationality." Shula’s father had been a decorated cavalry officer in World War I; later, he fought against a Communist uprising in Hungary and became a well-known lawyer. Their family status made Shula’s early years privileged and relatively carefree.

Shula with her war hero father
A proud Shula and her equally proud father in his World War I uniform
  Baby Shula in the family car
Baby Shula out for a spin in the family car in 1926


Shula’s first encounter with anti-Semitism occurred at age six, when a classmate called her a "dirty Jew." Even at this young age, Shula defended herself and began thinking about this distinction between being "Jewish" and being "Hungarian."

Shula as a schoolgirl
Shula discovered anti- Semitism at an early age

"I have a brain and I know my people are in trouble and I would like to live and do something for my people. It was an opportunity to live in historic times — to prove yourself."



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