This lesson was originally published on June 16, 2021 and was updated on June 15, 2022.
For a Google version of this lesson plan, click here. (Note: you will need to make a copy of the document to edit it).
In this lesson, students will explore and discuss the history and context around the Juneteenth holiday in the United States. Topics explored will include the history of racial injustice in the U.S., the Civil War and the limitations of the Emancipation Proclamation. Additionally, students will be encouraged to explore the modern significance of Juneteenth and its long-term impact.
Time: One 50-60 minute class period
On June 15, 2021, the Senate unanimously approved a bill approving June 19 as a federal holiday for “Juneteenth National Independence Day.” The House passed the bill one day later. Still, many Americans are still unaware of the history and significance of June 19.
On Jan. 1, 1863, President Abraham Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation declaring “that all persons held as slaves” in the Confederacy “shall be free.” While this may have freed some enslaved people on paper, the reality was much more complicated.
For instance, the Emancipation Proclamation only freed those slaves held under the Confederacy, not in border states loyal to the Union, including Kentucky, West Virginia and Delaware, where slavery was still legal after the Emancipation Proclamation. In fact, slavery was still legal in Kentucky until Dec. 1865, when the 13th Amendment was passed, though Kentucky voted against ratifying the amendment.
Confederate states and slaveholders also resisted emancipation, and many people remained enslaved in Confederate states after the proclamation, even as many enslaved people fought for their freedom or escaped behind Union lines. On June 19, 1865, Major General Gordon Granger of the Union issued an order in Galveston, Texas, alerting all enslaved persons that they were legally free.
At this point in 1865, Texas was the westernmost state in America and one of the last Confederate states to be occupied by the Union. Many slaveholders had fled Union advances in other parts of the South to Texas, along with the people they had enslaved.
While it took time for the logistics of “freeing” enslaved people to come into effect, the importance of June 19, or “Juneteenth” lived on. Considering how complicated emancipation was, many dates were considered for holding celebrations of emancipation, but over 150 years later, June 19 remains.
What originally was a holiday mainly observed by Texans has grown to be recognized all over the country. Each year on “Juneteenth,” (or more formally Juneteenth National Freedom Day), communities all around the United States gather and celebrate and reflect on the history of slavery and struggle for civil rights and equality, including the work that still remains after conditional advances such as the Emancipation Proclamation.
Warm up activity
As a class, watch the BrainPop video (8 minutes) below found here introducing Juneteenth. While watching the video, answer the following discussion questions.
- What is “Juneteenth”? What does it celebrate?
- Why did it take so long for enslaved peoples in Texas to finally be free? What obstacles existed?
- What were some of the forms of discrimination against newly freed people mentioned in the video?
- What is the Great Migration?
- How did Juneteenth become a national, not just regional, celebration?
After watching the video, separate into groups of 3-4 to discuss the focus questions (5 minutes).
- Along with their groups, participants should read through the article “What is Juneteenth” by Henry Louis Gates, Jr. starting at the second section, “Other Contenders.” (10 minutes) After reading, discuss the following questions (5-10 minutes):
- Why was June 19 chosen as the date to celebrate the freedom of all Americans? What were some of the drawbacks to other dates? Can you make an argument for why you think a different date might have been better or worse?
- Gates describes several reasons why Juneteenth struggled to be remembered at times, and why it was able to endure. Compare and contrast what the BrainPop video included as reasons why Juneteenth struggled and endured with what Gates emphasizes. What do you think were the most important factors in Juneteenth’s momentum and remembrance worth continuing?
- If Juneteenth isn’t recognized in your state, see if you can answer: Why is Juneteenth not recognized? At the end of the article in the “Juneteenth Today” section, Gates describes how Juneteenth has spread in modern day. Explore Juneteenth in your local community. Search for the history of Juneteenth in your community and state. (10-15 minutes) Find out:
1. Brainstorm or plan a Juneteenth celebration activity. This can be decorating a common area, bringing in a relevant local speaker or planning a refreshment break for your school. Juneteenth celebrations can be in the home, at school or in community locations. For more inspiration see these resources:
2. Some activists feel ambivalent about Juneteenth becoming a national holiday, or reject the idea. To learn more about the nuances surrounding making Juneteenth a federal holiday, watch this NewsHour interview with Dr. Mark Anthony Neal recorded in 2020 amid the George Floyd protests.
If classrooms finish and plan a celebratory activity, please share your ideas with us on social media @NewsHourEXTRA on Twitter.
Cecilia Curran is a current rising sophomore at Amherst College. She is a prospective double major in Asian Languages & Civilization and Psychology looking to work in Public Health. This summer she is working as one of PBS NewsHour EXTRA’s interns. Local to northern Virginia, Cecilia has loved PBS and her local PBS station WETA for years and is ecstatic to work with NewsHour this summer.
This lesson was edited by NewsHour Classroom’s education producer and former history teacher Vic Pasquantonio.