Gretchen Rubin The Roadmap To Happiness
The Four Tendencies

Gretchen Rubin designed the “Four Tendencies” framework to help people better understand why they’re likely to act—or not to act—when trying to achieve goals or complete tasks. For example, knowing whether you’re an Upholder, Questioner, Obliger, or Rebel helps to explain whether you’re likely to stick to that New Year’s resolution to get more sleep or eat more healthfully.

Upholder—Accepts rules, whether from outside or inside. An upholder meets deadlines, follows doctor's order, keeps a New Year's resolution.

Questioner—Questions rules and follows them only if they make sense. Questioners may choose to follow rules, or not, according to their judgment.

Obliger—Accepts outside rules, but struggles to meet self-imposed rules.

Rebel—Flouts rules, from outside or inside. They resist control. Give a rebel a rule, and the rebel will want to resist.

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