FRONTLINE, in Collaboration with The New York Times, Presents “BOEING’S FATAL FLAW,” Exposing a Story of Commercial Pressure, Flawed Design, Failed Oversight & the Human Toll


In an investigation with The New York Times, FRONTLINE examines the commercial pressures, flawed design and failed oversight behind Boeing’s 737 Max jet and the crashes that killed 346 people. (Paul Mailman for FRONTLINE)

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September 8, 2021

First In-Depth Documentary Feature about the Boeing 737 Max Catastrophes Airs on Sept. 14, 2021

Boeing’s Fatal Flaw
Tuesday, Sept. 14, 2021, at 10/9c on PBS and on YouTube
Streaming at 7/6c at & in the PBS Video App
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From award-winning director Tom Jennings, (Whose Vote Counts; Opioids, Inc.), FRONTLINE, in collaboration with The New York Times, will air a new documentary titled Boeing’s Fatal Flaw. The documentary special will air on PBS and begin streaming on, YouTube and in the PBS Video App starting Tuesday, Sept. 14, 2021.

Drawing on extensive reporting by a team of New York Times investigative journalists, alongside interviews with experts and Boeing insiders, Boeing’s Fatal Flaw tells the story of the fastest selling jet in Boeing history, how a software system that was supposed to keep people safe led to their deaths, and how intense market pressure and flawed oversight contributed to a catastrophic crisis for one of world’s most iconic industrial names.

As the film details, in the wake of the deadly October 2018 crash of Lion Air Flight 610, the company quickly identified a software glitch and began working on a fix. But Boeing stood by its new commercial jet and suggested pilot error played a role.

As FRONTLINE and The New York Times report, experts who examined the deadly crash saw something much more serious: “I talked to three managers [and] said ‘This is a design flaw,’” says Joe Jacobsen, a former Federal Aviation Administration engineer based in Seattle who worked closely with Boeing, in his first on-camera interview. “They were skeptical, not really buying in, saying [that] pilots should have been able to intervene.”

Boeing responded to the Lion Air tragedy with an advisory to pilots about potential malfunctions, and the FAA did not ground the planes. Five months later, a second Boeing 737 Max 8, Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302, went down. The two deadly crashes killed 346 people.

“One of the things that really struck me, from speaking to a lot of Boeing employees, was that they were so excited to go to work at Boeing. Boeing is a tremendous engineering company and a technical marvel, but almost without failure, they point to a degradation of that mindset — and that safety suffered as a result,” says Doug Pasternak, who led the congressional investigation into the 737 Max and speaks publicly in the film for the first time about what he found. “Looking backwards, I think you can clearly see the trajectory to tragedy along the way at Boeing.”

Boeing publicly said the Max went through a deliberate six-year development process. But The New York Times reporters found insiders who said Boeing executives had been raising the pressure on designing the new 737 quickly — and cheaply. Boeing’s Fatal Flaw examines the fateful decision to change a piece of software called MCAS: software that few pilots and airline executives even knew existed, and that included a key feature that would prove to make the system particularly dangerous.

Internal communications detailed in the film show Boeing was determined to maintain the status quo: avoiding potential scrutiny by the FAA that would slow production, keeping new software training for pilots to a minimum, and even requesting that MCAS be removed from pilot training manuals. But inside Boeing, there were early signs of trouble.

“A Boeing test pilot was flying the Max in a flight simulator and trying to respond to an activation of MCAS, and that resulted in what he described as a catastrophic event. It showed that if that had been in real life, he [could] have lost the airplane,” Pasternak says. “They realize from that moment on, even a Boeing test pilot may have trouble responding to MCAS.”

In examining how the 737 Max crashes happened, the film sheds light on an arrangement that allowed the government to give oversight powers to Boeing: “The airplanes are part of the story but so are the regulators,” says Natalie Kitroeff, one of the The New York Times reporters who investigated the crashes.

Boeing’s Fatal Flaw also features the stories of those who have suffered from the disasters: the Lion Air and Ethiopian Airlines victims’ families, some of whom lost multiple loved ones.

“I know that she wasn’t afraid of flying at all, until the last six minutes of her life,” says Nadia Milleron, whose 24-year-old daughter, Samya Stumo, died aboard Ethiopian Airlines Flight 302. “That’s just a horrible betrayal that Boeing and the FAA caused for this person, the last moments of their life, and it kills me that that trust was betrayed.”

“On the flight of 737 Max crash, we lost five of our family members. We had our mom, Anne Karanja, our dear sister, Carolyne Karanja. Her three kids, Ryan Njoroge, Kelli Wanjiiku and Rubi Wangui,” Quindos Karanja tells FRONTLINE and the Times.

“To this day, I think Boeing doesn’t accept full responsibility for these crashes. There’s always the implication that if the pilots had acted appropriately, those 346 people would still be alive today,” says David Gelles, one of The New York Times reporters.

Boeing declined to be interviewed for the film. In a statement, the company said safety is its top priority, and it has worked closely with regulators, investigators and stakeholders “to implement changes that ensure accidents like these never happen again.”

Earlier this year, the company settled a criminal charge of conspiracy to defraud the United States brought by the Department of Justice and admitted to “misleading statements, half-truths and omissions” about MCAS. It agreed to pay a $2.5 billion settlement: $500 million to the families of the victims and most of the rest to compensate the airlines.

The FAA cleared the 737 Max to resume flights, and it is once again flying passengers around the world.

Boeing’s Fatal Flaw airs on Tuesday, September 14, on PBS and online at, on YouTube and in the PBS Video App (check local listings).

Boeing’s Fatal Flaw is a FRONTLINE production with The New York Times and Left/Right Docs. The writer and director is Tom Jennings. The producers are Vanessa Fica and Kate McCormick. The reporters are David Gelles, James Glanz, Natalie Kitroeff and Jack Nicas. The senior producer is Frank Koughan. The executive producers for Left/Right Docs are Ken Druckerman and Banks Tarver. The executive producer of FRONTLINE is Raney Aronson-Rath.

FRONTLINE, U.S. television’s longest running investigative documentary series, explores the issues of our times through powerful storytelling. FRONTLINE has won every major journalism and broadcasting award, including 95 Emmy Awards and 26 Peabody Awards. Visit and follow us on Twitter, Facebook, Instagram, and YouTube to learn more. FRONTLINE is produced at GBH in Boston and is broadcast nationwide on PBS. Funding for FRONTLINE is provided through the support of PBS viewers and by the Corporation for Public Broadcasting. Major funding for FRONTLINE is provided by the Ford Foundation. Additional funding is provided by the Abrams Foundation; the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation; Park Foundation; and the FRONTLINE Journalism Fund with major support from Jon and Jo Ann Hagler on behalf of the Jon L. Hagler Foundation and additional support from Koo and Patricia Yuen.

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