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Mapping Terra Incognita
Henricus Hondius, Polus Antarcticus (1639)
Hondius map

Mapmaker Henricus Hondius scrupulously recorded the known area of Antarctica in 1639—nothingness. Not given to conjuring continents on a whim, Hondius confined his flights of fancy to the perimeter of his map, where Magellanic penguins, native to South America, disport themselves. His conception endured as a model for mapmakers for some 60 years, countering the traditional mapmaker's penchant for speculating into existence what had not yet been seen or explored.
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