Dr. Thomas Cochran directs the Nuclear Program of the Natural Resources
Defense Council. He initiated a series of joint nuclear weapons verification
projects with the Soviet Academy of Sciences and has served as a consultant to
many agencies on energy, non-proliferation, and nuclear reactor matters.
Dr. Frank Von Hippel is former assistant director for National Security
in the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. He advised the
Clinton White House on the joint U.S.-Russian non-proliferation programs
initiated after the fall of the Soviet Union.
Also read von Hippel's account of the development of U.S. nuclear policy under
President Clinton, "A Personal Report".
Dr. David Kay is the former head of the evaluation section of the
International Atomic Energy Agency. After the Gulf War, he was deputy leader
of the IAEA investigation of Saddam Hussein's secret nuclear weapon program.
He testified before Congress on what the lessons of Iraq can teach about
current proliferation threats.
Vaclav Havlik became involved in international trade shortly after the
Berlin Wall fell, which opened up new opportunities for commerce in the former
Soviet Union. He began with groceries, medical supplies, and other
consumables, bringing them in to the hungry Russian market. As his contacts
expanded, he realized that demand for Western goods and money was so strong,
that people were willing to offer virtually anything in exchange, including
nuclear materials. Havlik was arrested near Landshut, Germany for smuggling
uranium and sentenced to thirteen months in jail. He has served his time, and
now runs a bar in Prague.
Gustav Illich is a slovakian trader who was snared in a German sting
operation on nuclear smuggling. He boasts of good ties to higher-ups in the
Russian military and mafia, and during the course of his search for material
claims to have even been offered material from a nuclear warhead. In the sting
operation, Illich provided German police with uranium samples on four different
occasions, including one sample of 87.7% enriched uranium identical to the
material seized in Prague six months later.
Leonid Smirnov is the first known thief of bomb grade nuclear materials in
Russia. He worked as an engineer at the Luch plant near Moscow in a laboratory
handling highly enriched uranium. From May to September 1992, while his co-workers were taking smoking breaks, Smirnov skimmed off roughly 1.5 kilograms of highly-enriched uranium.
Nikolai Kravchenko is the head of the Nuclear Materials Division of the
Russian State Customs Committee. He is trying to introduce new procedures and
technologies to tighten nuclear customs control.
Major Jan Rathausky was the lead Czech detective in the
1994 Prague nuclear smuggling case which involved six pound of
highly enriched uranium.
Bernd Schmidbauer is head of German Intelligence. The sting operations
that he set up to determine if any Russian fissile nuclear material was
the black market earned him criticism from both the Russians and his own
countrymen for endangering civilians by allowing plutonium to be transported
aboard a passenger jet. To date, almost all of the major seizures of
weapons-grade materials in Europe have resulted from his network of
Nikolai Bondarev is the Director of Security at the
Kurchatov Institute of Atomic Energy, Russia's oldest atomic research institute
located in Moscow. Mr. Bondarev has been working closely with American
specialists to devise improved security measures for the institute.
Gennady Pshakin is the head of the international department at the
Obninsk Institute of Physics and Power Engineering. He has been instrumental
in implementing new safeguard techniques at an institute where lax accounting
and handling of nuclear materials had been the norm. He has worked closely
with Americans involved in the Lab-to-Lab program to increase materials
protection, accounting and control at facilities of the Russian nuclear
Alexander Emelyanenkov is a Moscow journalist who has focused on nuclear
issues for several years, writing and visiting the nuclear complexes in both
Russia and the United States. He is currently the Deputy Editor of the
Leonid Fituni is the Director of the Center for Strategic and Global
Studies in Moscow. His areas of expertise include strategic and crisis issues,
economic transition in the former Soviet Union, and nuclear proliferation and
organized crime in Russia.
Mark Hibbs is widely regarded as one of the most knowledgable
journalists covering nuclear issues worldwide. Based in Bonn, Mr. Hibbs is the
European Editor of "Nucleonics Week," and has often traveled to nuclear sites
around the former Soviet Union. He has extensively investigated and written
about the major seizures of fissile nuclear material in Europe.
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