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Cross-Curricular - Health
•  Explore Factors That Have Contributed to the Global Spread of HIV/AIDS
•  Examine the Effects of Disease Across Time
•  Improve Health Care for Women in Underdeveloped Countries
•  Track the Discovery, Spread and Control of Disease



Explore Factors That Have Contributed to the Global Spread of HIV/AIDS


The Activity

Note: The discussion and video for this activity includes dialogue about sexual behavior related to the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. This activity also assumes that students have a basic understanding of HIV/AIDS and how it is transmitted. (For a quick review, see this Fact Sheet
aids.org/factSheets/101-What-is-AIDS.html
from the aids.org Web site.

Tell students that there are an estimated 40 million people around the world with HIV/AIDS, and that this number could potentially double by 2010. Display the FRONTLINE/World feature, "Mapping the Global HIV/AIDS Epidemic".
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india304/aids1.html
Point out regions of the world with the largest numbers of people living with HIV/AIDS. Explain that there is no cure for HIV/AIDS, and that many of those infected do not have access to life-prolonging medications. Identify what some governments in various countries around the world are doing to prevent and treat HIV/AIDS. According to the information provided, what obstacles do many countries face?

Next, tell students that India is the second-largest HIV-positive population in the world, behind South Africa. Then, show them the approximately 20-minute FRONTLINE/World video, “ India: The Sex Workers.” (Note: This story can be viewed online
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/india304/
in its entirety. A free transcript
pbs.org/frontlineworld/about/episodes/304_transcript.html
is also available to assist with planning. Or Purchase a Tape of Episode 304.)

As they watch, students should record notes on the economic, social, and political factors that have contributed to the spread of HIV/AIDS in India. Following the video, have students share some observations from their notes. Also, discuss the effects of disease on individuals, families, and communities.

Conclude the activity by challenging students to set a personal goal for helping to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS. Goals might include committing to avoid behaviors that can spread HIV/AIDS, participating in local HIV/AIDS education efforts, or supporting global efforts to fight this epidemic by making a donation to the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria (http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/).

Relevant National Standards

Health Standard 7: Knows how to maintain and promote personal health

Level IV, Benchmark 1: Knows how personal behaviors relate to health and well-being and how these behaviors can be modified if necessary to promote achievement of health goals throughout life Level IV, Benchmark 2: Understands the short- and long-term consequences of safe, risky, and harmful behaviors

Health Standard 8: Knows essential concepts about the prevention and control of disease

Level IV, Benchmark 4: Understands the social, economic, and political effects of disease on individuals, families, and communities

Health Standard 10: Understands the fundamental concepts of growth and development

Level IV, Benchmark 2: Understands how physical, mental, social, and cultural factors influence attitudes and behaviors regarding sexuality

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Examine the Effects of Disease Across Time


The Activity

Create a matrix that examines the social, economic and political effects of disease epidemics across time. Divide students into groups and have each group choose a disease featured on the Epidemics Through Time
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/epidemics.html
map. Be sure one group chooses SARS so an example of a recent outbreak is included. Using the map and other research materials i.e. Links and Resources,
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/links.html
have each group fill in the class matrix with the following information about their assigned disease: name of disease, details of its outbreak (including geographic areas affected), mode of transmission, and one social, one economic and one political effect of the disease. When the matrix is complete, discuss these questions.

  • What are some of the similarities and differences of the diseases?
  • In our modern world, how is the mode of transmission different from earlier times?
  • Should the United States be concerned about disease outbreaks in foreign countries? Why or why not?

Resources

Visit the "Hong Kong: Chasing the Virus" Web resources to find the features mentioned in this activity, to watch the full FRONTLINE/World segment in streaming video, or to gather related links and facts:
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/

Relevant National Standards

Health, Standard 2: Knows environmental and external factors that affect individual and community health

Health, Standard 8: Knows essential concepts about the prevention and control of disease

Level IV, Benchmark 4
Understands the social, economic and political effects of disease on individuals, families and communities

Related Activities

This activity is part of a suite of activities developed around the theme of Environment. Additional activities under this theme include:

Address Concerns Caused by Conflict in Colombia (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_colombia.html

Documenting a Historic Climb of Mount Everest (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_nepal.html

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Improve Health Care for Women in Underdeveloped Countries


The Activity

Proper health care during pregnancy and childbirth is vital to the well-being of both mother and child. To help students investigate the importance of such care, ask them to imagine they are women who have just learned that they are pregnant. Show students where Afghanistan is on a map and ask them to pretend that half of the class lives in Afghanistan and the other half lives in the United States. Then have students research the typical health care that they would receive in their assigned country during pregnancy and childbirth. A good starting point for research on Afghan health care is the FRONTLINE/World's feature Invisible Women
http://www.pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/afghanistan/health.html
For women in the United States, students may wish to start with the Centers for Disease Control report Safe Motherhood.
http://www.cdc.gov/reproductivehealth/mh5.htm

Have students incorporate their research findings into a descriptive paragraph about the health care they are likely to receive in their assigned country. Invite volunteers to share their paragraphs with the class. Compare and contrast the care and outcomes reported by the students for each country. Discuss the importance of prenatal and perinatal care to both mother and child.

Next, help students do something about the lack of proper health care for women in underdeveloped countries like Afghanistan. Guide students as they plan a fund-raising activity and then contribute the funds to an organization such as UNICEF
http://www.supportunicef.org/forms/whichcountry_afghan.html
or Doctors Without Borders.
https://www.doctorswithoutbordersdonations.org/default.asp

Relevant National Standards

Health
Standard 2: Knows environmental and external factors that affect individual and community health

Level III, Benchmark 1 Knows cultural beliefs, socioeconomic considerations and other environmental factors within a community that influence the health of its members (e.g., relationship of values, socioeconomic status and cultural experiences to the selection of health-care services)
Standard 7: Knows how to maintain and promote personal health
Level III, Benchmark 2 Knows how positive health practices and appropriate health care can help to reduce health risks (e.g., good personal hygiene, health screenings, self-examinations)
Standard 8: Knows essential concepts about the prevention and control of disease
Level IV, Benchmark 3 Understands the importance of prenatal and perinatal care to both the mother and the child
Level IV, Benchmark 4 Understands the social, economic and political effects of disease on individuals, families and communities

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Track the Discovery, Spread and Control of Disease


The Activity

Create a flow chart following the SARS crisis from its outbreak to the discovery that peptides can prevent the SARS virus from penetrating cells. Students can find information for their charts in the story overview
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/thestory.html
for "Hong Kong: Chasing the Virus" and in "Peptides, Antibodies, Membranes ... What?".
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/science.html
Students also can complete their flow charts by watching the video (about 13 minutes long) of this story.

Focus student viewing by asking them to note factors that contributed to the outbreak of SARS, as well as prevention and control activities used to address the epidemic. Ask students to emphasize in their charts the strategy that scientists developed to keep cells from becoming infected by the SARS virus. Next, ask students to work in small groups to examine their charts and determine any "lessons learned" from the SARS epidemic. Based on their analysis, what recommendations would they make to prevent or minimize future epidemics? To whom would they make these recommendations? Groups should report their conclusions back to the class where a composite list can be organized.

Resources

Visit the "Hong Kong: Chasing the Virus" Web resources to find the features mentioned in this activity, to watch the full FRONTLINE/World segment in streaming video, or to gather related links and facts:
pbs.org/frontlineworld/stories/hongkong/

Relevant National Standards

Health, Standard 2: Knows environmental and external factors that affect individual and community health

Level IV, Benchmark 3
Understands how the environment influences the health of the community
Level IV, Benchmark 4
Understands how the prevention and control of health problems are influenced by research and medical advances
Life Sciences, Standard 5: Understands the structure and function of cells and organisms
Level III, Benchmark 4
Knows that multicellular organisms have a variety of specialized cells, tissues, organs and organ systems that perform specialized functions
Level III, Benchmark 8
Knows that disease in organisms can be caused by intrinsic failures of the system or infection by other organisms

Related Activities

This activity is part of a suite of activities developed around the theme of Environment. Additional activities under this theme include:

Address Concerns Caused by Conflict in Colombia (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_colombia.html

Documenting a Historic Climb of Mount Everest (Geography)
pbs.org/frontlineworld/educators/geography_nepal.html

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