Frontline World

COLOMBIA - The Pipeline War, November, 2002



THE STORY
Synopsis of "The Pipeline War"


CHARTING THE WORLD'S OIL
Interactive Map of Global Oil


WHO'S WHO
Context for the Pipeline War


PHOTO ESSAY
Civilians Caught in the Crossfire


U.S. CORPORATE INTERESTS
Occidental Petroleum, BP, and more


FACTS & STATS
Learn More about Colombia


LINKS & RESOURCES
Human Rights, Colombia's Civil War, Media Resources


MAP


REACT TO THIS STORY

   

Links and Resources
General Background
Colombia's Civil War
Plan Colombia
Human Rights Conditions
Oil in Colombia
Culture
Media Resources

General Background

Country Profile: Colombia
The BBC's profile of Colombia includes a short profile of the country, a detailed timeline covering events from 1525 to 2002, a profile of President Alvaro Uribe, and an overview of the Colombian media, including descriptions of key media outlets.

Colombia Academic Resources
From the University of Texas Latin American Network Information Center (LANIC), this extensive list of resources includes links to information about the Colombian government, the peace process, business in the country, Colombian culture and academia, news within Colombia, and more.

Colombia Country Briefing
From The Economist, this site has excellent background information, statistics and surveys are available, as well as up-to-date analyses of current news and reports from Colombia.

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Colombia's Civil War

Colombia: A Troubled Nation
This Associated Press overview (using Flash) of Colombia and its ongoing conflicts includes an illustration of the oil pipelines that crisscross the country as well as brief profiles of the key players.

Colombia: War Without End
Winner of a 2001 Online Journalism Award, this site from CNN.com offers essays on Colombia from CNN's own correspondents and other analysts; a timeline that covers Colombia's history from before 1500 to 2001; profiles of the rebel groups and the paramilitaries and other key players; overviews of the key issues involved in the country's conflicts; maps that show rebel and paramilitary strongholds; and a graphical illustration of Colombia's relationships with other countries in the region.

Colombia's Civil War
From The Washington Post, this site includes stories recently run in the Post as well as editorials and commentary, a transcript of Post correspondent Scott Wilson's interview with paramilitary leader Carlos Castaña, and related links.

Special Report: Colombia
This site from The Guardian compiles the British newspaper's recent articles and commentary regarding Colombia and also includes an interactive guide on the history of the conflict, covering events from the late 19th century to the present.

Colombia's Civil War
From PBS's NewsHour, this site includes a map, a timeline, profiles of the key players, and an overview of Colombia's illegal drug trade. In addition, reporters for Online NewsHour have written three articles detailing the United States' evolving role in Colombia.

"Out of the Jungle"
In the May 2000 issue of The Atlantic Monthly, Benjamin Ryder Howe, an editor at Paris Review, chronicles life in a country where the bloody civil war now reaches areas that had been relatively untouched by the violence of the rebels and the paramilitaries.

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Plan Colombia

Plan Colombia Fact Sheet
The U.S. State Department describes the nuts and bolts of Plan Colombia. It also details the allocation of funds for items like Blackhawk helicopters ($26 million) and environmental programs ($2.5 million).

Colombian Government's Take on Plan Colombia
The Colombian government's site on Plan Colombia -- which plan "seeks to recover confidence among Colombians by rescuing basic norms of social coexistence" -- speaks in glittering generalities.

United States Institute of Peace Library
This glowing analysis of Plan Colombia is by a U.S. federal institution, created and funded by Congress to promote international conflict resolution. The report advocates using strong military and police forces to keep Colombia's citizens "free from fear."

Colombia Report
The Colombia Report is a source of information on Colombia and U.S. involvement there. Articles include a discussion of the shortcomings of Plan Colombia, published by the Information Network of the Americas (INOTA), a nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting greater awareness of U.S. foreign policy in Colombia. According to INOTA, the net result of Plan Colombia "will not be solidarity amongst Colombians, but an increase in violence that will further damage the already fragile economy."

"Plan Colombia"
After a lengthy investigation, Nation contributing editor Marc Cooper presents a detailed picture -- and a condemnation -- of Plan Colombia's effects on Colombians.

"Plan Colombia and Mission Creep"
Global Exchange, a nonprofit organization dedicated to "promoting people-to-people ties around the world," expresses its strong condemnation of the expanding U.S. military presence in Colombia.

Center for International Policy's Colombia Project
The Center for International Policy is a nonprofit organization based in Washington, D.C. The Web site for the center's Colombia Project is a comprehensive resource for information on U.S. military aid to Colombia, background on the peace process and analyses of the conflict.

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Human Rights Conditions


Report Criticizes Colombia on Militias
The New York Times reports on allegations that the Colombian attorney general, Luis Camilo Osorio, has hamstrung investigations of paramilitary groups by firing or transferring prosecutors working on paramilitary cases. The report, issued by Human Rights Watch, ties a top military officer to paramilitary forces in northwestern Colombia and could have implications for U.S. policy.

Human Rights Watch
In its September 2001 report, "The 'Sixth Division': Military-Paramilitary Ties and U.S. Policy in Colombia", the group details the alleged ties between the Colombian army and the right-wing paramilitaries. "Colombia's army has five divisions, but many Colombians told Human Rights Watch that paramilitaries are so fully integrated into the army's battle strategy, coordinated with its soldiers in the field, and linked to government units via intelligence, supplies, radios, weapons, cash and common purpose that they effectively constitute a sixth division of the army," Human Rights Watch reported.


Amnesty International
In Amnesty International's latest profile of the country, it reports that "systematic and gross abuses of human rights and international humanitarian law persisted."

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Oil in Colombia

The Energy Information Administration
Run by the U.S. Department of Energy, this comprehensive site provides an overview of the energy situation around the world. It includes monthly and yearly statistics on international oil imports, exports, production and consumption. It also contains detailed information about existing oil reserves around the world and forecasts for the energy situation in the decades to come.

"Oil Inflames Colombia's Civil War"
Last year, the Caño Limón Pipeline was hit by 170 bombs, costing Occidental Petroleum, which runs the pipeline$75 million in profits -- and costing the Colombian government $430 million in oil revenue. The Christian Science Monitor reports on the heightened tensions around Colombia's "black gold."

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Culture

Colombia Culture: Independent Voices on Colombia
This unique project hosts Web logs about Colombia culture. Individuals post new updates about theater, carnavales, everyday life and more.

Art, History and Culture of Colombia
In this repository of Colombian art, images, news and links, you can learn about the International Poetry Festival in MedellĂn, download Andean photos and check out independent artists' perspectives.

Epigrafe
For a very different Web experience, visit Epigrafe. The site, which is in Spanish, is rich in literature, art and cultural references. Even if you don't know Spanish, the imaginative graphic entry to the site makes the visit worthwhile.

Museo del Oro (Gold Museum)
One of Bogota's attractions is its Museo del Oro, with unique artifacts from various indigenous cultures.

Art Museums, Exhibition Centers, and Collections
Further information about art and museums can be found here.

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Media Resources

El Tiempo and El Espectador
While there is much reporting from within Colombia in the form of daily, weekly and monthly publications, two major newspapers are El Tiempo and El Espectador.

Colombia Times
The Colombia Times Web site contains articles on Colombia written in English.

News Agency of New Colombia (ANNCOL)
The ANNCOL is associated with the Latin American Federation of Journalists. Its Web site hosts a compilation of Colombian stories and sources.

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