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Conscience and the Constitution
'We Hereby Refuse...'

"I could not believe that the government could actually put us in camp, strip us of everything . . . and then order us into the military as if nothing had happened."
-- Frank Emi

For some in camp, reinstitution of the draft was the last straw. At Heart Mountain, they organized, and Frank Emi would lead them. An engineer named Kiyoshi Okamoto had been writing manifestoes, calling himself the Fair Play Committee of One. He taught Emi about the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. With Okamoto as chair, the Fair Play Committee rallied support through the only means they had: writing letters, mimeographing bulletins, and posting them throughout camp.

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Letter of protest to draft boards (early 1944)
original original

FRANK EMI on the FPC (51 sec)
Emi recalls holding public informational meetings on the Fair Play Committee.

text transcript video video: 56k | DSL
Fair Play Committee Bulletin #1 (1944)
The first manifesto from the newly-enlarged group.
original original text text

Fair Play Committee Bulletin #2 (February, 1944)
A FAQ on the growing resistance.
original original text text

Fair Play Committee Bulletin #3 (March 1, 1944)
With this statement, the young men at Heart Mountain crossed the line from protest to resistance.
original original text text

FRANK EMI comments
Frank Emi comments on Bulletin #3.

text transcript video video: 56k | DSL
Heart Mountain Fair Play Committee notes
original original


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