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Enemies of War

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A devastating earthquake hit El Salvador on January 13, 2001. Want to help? Here is contact information for three organizations responding to the earthquake crisis:

Share Foundation
phone: 415-239-2595

Catholic Relief Services
phone: 1-800-736-3467
online contributions

US-El Salvador Sister Cities
phone: 732-398-9600

To purchase a copy of the video:
for home video orders contact South Carolina ETV, ph: 800-553-7752;
for educational use only, please contact New Day Films, ph: 888-367-9154, email:

Download the PDF version of the Moakley's Task Force Report on El Salvador   (Get Acrobat Reader)

Photo credits

History, Culture & Politics El Salvador
Encyclopedia Britannica's online history of El Salvador from before Spanish colonization through the civil war.

Congressman Jim McGovern
Site for 3rd Congressional District of Massachusetts Congressman Jim McGovern, who was Congressman Joe Moakley's top aide in the Jesuit investigation. Read McGovern's essay, "Lessons Learned in El Salvador."

Congressman Joe Moakley
Site for Massachusetts' 9th District Congressman Joe Moakley, who led a task force to investigate the deaths of Jesuit priests in El Salvador. Moakley's investigation began an international process that led to the end of the civil war and the beginning of a profound change for the country. Read Moakley's essay, "El Salvador's Humanity and Dignity."

Directorio de Arte e Historia en Línea de El Salvador
Spanish-language site with poems, stories and artwork by Salvadorans.

El Salvador
Bilingual (mostly Spanish) site with general information about El Salvador, including tourism, industry, culture and a gallery of photographs.

Library of Congress: El Salvador
The history of El Salvador - from the Spanish conquest through democratization - and a current profile of the country, including geography, economy, government and national security is featured.

Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation
Western Hemisphere Institute for Security Cooperation (created when the U.S. Army School of the Americas was closed) is run by the Department of Defense "to provide professional education and training to military, law enforcement and civilian personnel of nations of the Western Hemisphere." Opponents, such as the SOA Watch, believe that the Institute trains Latin American soldiers in combat, counter-insurgency and counter-narcotics.

School of the Americas Watch (SOA)
SOA Watch is an independent organization that seeks to close the U.S. Army School of the Americas, "under whatever name it is called," through vigils and fasts, demonstrations and nonviolent protest, as well as media and legislative work. SOA Watch believes that many graduates of the school have been responsible for some of the worst human rights abuses in Latin America.

U.S. Department of State Background Notes on El Salvador
Released by the Bureau of Inter-American Affairs, 2000 site presents the U.S. government perspective on El Salvador

U.S. Embassy in El Salvador
The U.S. Embassy Web site provides information regarding visas and immigration, as well as reports on economic conditions, human rights and narcotics control.

Jesuit University of Central America (UCA)
Web site for the Jesuit University of Central America (UCA) in San Salvador. UCA publishes Proceso, an English-language version of the respected weekly journal of socio-political research and opinion.

Human Rights and International Aid Organizations

Amnesty International
Amnesty International campaigns to free prisoners of conscience, ensure fair and prompt trials for political prisoners, abolish the death penalty, torture and other cruel treatment, end political killings and "disappearances" and oppose human rights abuses by opposition groups.

Catholic Relief Services
Working in El Salvador since 1960, Catholic Relief Services provides emergency assistance and programs for sustainable agriculture, finance, health care, peace building and advocacy.

Center for International Policy
The Center for International Policy promotes U.S. foreign policy based on peace, international cooperation, demilitarization and respect for basic human rights.

Central American Refugee Center CARECEN-N.Y.
Immigration and human rights group serving the refugee community in New York State. Bilingual Web site includes information on El Salvador, human rights in Central America and changes in immigration laws.

Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting human rights, preventing discrimination, upholding political freedom, protecting people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and bringing offenders to justice.

Latin American Network Information Center
University of Texas site offers resources on El Salvador and other Latin American countries. Includes search engine and links for academic research, government, news, media and the arts.

North American Congress on Latin America
NACLA provides policy makers, analysts, academics, organizers, journalists and religious and community groups with information on major trends in Latin America and its relations with the United States. Publishes the bimonthly magazine, NACLA Report on the Americas.

Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights
United Nations Web site, in French, Spanish and English, includes volumes of information on human rights including declarations, reports, databases, programs, legislation, charters, conferences, publications and related links.

Martyrdom in El Salvador - The American Churchwomen
Site dedicated to the American Churchwomen killed in El Salavador: Maryknoll Sisters Ita Ford and Maura Clark, Ursuline Sister Dorothy Kazel and lay missioner Jean Donovan.

Resource Center of the Americas
Site devoted to developing connections between Latin America, the Caribbean and the United States - contains updates on news and programs including labor, globalization and human rights projects.

U.S.-El Salvador Sister Cities
A national, grassroots organization of U.S. citizens and residents that have formed ongoing partnerships with rural communities in El Salvador who are struggling for social justice. Led by National Director Michael Ring, Sister Cities provide political, moral, and economic support to their Salvadoran counterparts. Read Michael Ring's essay, "El Salvador Today: The Hope and the Challenge."

Washington Office on Latin America
The Washington Office on Latin America (WOL) promotes human rights, democracy, and social and economic justice in Latin America and the Caribbean by facilitating dialogue, monitoring the impact of policies and programs and promoting alternatives through reporting, education, training and advocacy. WOL's Senior Associate for Cuba and Central America, Geoff Thale, provided key scholarly resources for the film.

A project of the Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, Witness encourages individuals and groups to use video and technology to monitor abuses, record injustices and to fight for human rights.

Online Publications

El Diario de Hoy de El Salvador
Online Spanish-language newspaper covering El Salvador.

Guanaquiemos El Salvador
Spanish-language online magazine includes articles, humor, recipes, popular home remedies and more.

La Prensa Gráfica
Online Spanish-language newspaper published in San Salvador.

Online Articles and Documents

"Dealing with Death Squads" CIA intelligence memorandum (January 20, 1984)

"El Salvador Country Report on Human Rights Practices for 1998" by U.S. Department of State (February 26, 1999)

"Human Rights Defenders in Central America, El Salvador" by Amnesty International (June 28, 1996)

"The Truth of El Mozote" by Mark Danner (Institute of International Studies, U.C. Berkeley, December 6, 1993)

"United Nations Commission on Human Rights Report" by Pedro Nikken (January 13, 1995)

Books and Articles

The American Connection, Volume I: State Terror and Popular Resistance in El Salvador by Michael McClintock (Zed Books, 1985)

Chapultepec: Five Years Later by Jack Spence, David Dye, Mike Lanchin and Geoff Thale with George Vickers (Hemisphere Initiatives, 1997)

Comparative Peace Processes in Latin America by Cynthia J. Arnson (editor) (Woodrow Wilson Center Press, 1999)

El Salvador: Central America in the New Cold War by Marvin E. Gettleman, Patrick Lacefield, Louis Menashe and David Mermelstein (Grove Press, 1986)

El Salvador: Embassy under Attack by Ambassador Frank J. Devine (Vantage Press, 1981)

El Salvador: The Face of Revolution by Robert Armstrong and Janet Shenk (South End Press, 1982)

El Salvador in the Eighties: Counterinsurgency and Revolution by Mario Lungo Uclés (Temple University Press, 1996)

El Salvador: A Revolution Confronts the United States by Cynthia J. Arnson (Institute for Policy Studies and Transnational Institute, 1982)

El Salvador: A Spring Whose Waters Never Run Dry by Jon S.J. Sobrino (Ecumenical Program on Central America and the Caribbean, 1990)

Elections and Democracy in Central America, Revisited by Mitchell A. Seligson and John A. Booth (editors) (University of North Carolina Press, 1995)

In Our Own Backyard: The United States in Central America, 1977-1992 by William Leogrande (University of North Carolina Press, 1998)

Inside El Salvador: The Essential Guide to its Politics, Economy, Society, and Environment by Kevin Murray with Tom Barry (Resource Center Press, 1995)

Martha Doggett, A Death Foretold (Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, 1993)

A Message too Precious to be Silenced by Margaret Swedish and Lee Miller (Religious Task Force on Central America and the Caribbean, 1992)

One Day of Life by Manlio Argueta (Vintage Books, 1981)

Oscar Romero: Memories in Mosaic by María López Vigil (Ecumenical Program on Central America and the Caribbean, 2000)

Paying the Price: Ignacio Ellacuria and the Murdered Jesuits of El Salvador by Theresa Whitfield (Temple University Press, 1995)

Peace without Justice: Obstacles to Building the Rule of Law in El Salvador by Margaret Popkin (Pennsylvania State University Press, 2000)

Revolution in El Salvador: From Civil Strife to Civil Peace by Tommie Sue Montgomery (Westview Press, 1995)

Romero: A Life by James R., S.J. Brockman (Orbis Books, 1990)

"What Did you Do in the War, Mama?" by Tina Rosenberg, New York Times Magazine (February 7, 1999)

"You Must Go Home Again" by Scott Wallace, Harper's Magazine (August, 2000)

Photo Credits

Images of El Salvador by Mike Oso

Images of El Salvador by Raul Barrientos

Images of FMLN by Jeremy Bigwood

Images of coffee workers in El Salvador by Steve Cagan

Image of Chalatenango Province by David J. Monahan

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